Electrical and Computer Engineering
Applications of probability theory and its engineering applications. Random variables, distribution and density functions. Functions of random variables, moments and characteristic functions. Sequences of random variables, stochastic convergence and the central limit theorem. Concept of a stochastic process, stationary processes and ergodicity. Correlation functions, spectral analysis and their application to linear systems. Mean square estimation. (Prerequisite: Undergraduate course in signals and systems.)
Discrete-time signals and systems, frequency analysis, sampling of continuous time signals, the z-transform, implementation of discrete time systems, the discrete Fourier transform, fast Fourier transform algorithms, filter design techniques. (Prerequisites: Courses in complex variables, basic signals and systems.)
Review of Fourier series and linear algebra. Fourier transforms, Laplace transforms, Z transforms and their interrelationship. State space modeling of continuous-time and discrete-time systems. Canonical forms, solution of state equations, controllability, observability and stability of linear systems. Pole placement via state feedback, observer design, Lyapunov stability analysis. (Prerequisite: Undergraduate course in signals and systems.)
This course introduces the fundamentals of computer system architecture and organization. Topics include CPU structure and function, addressing modes, instruction formats, memory system organization, memory mapping and hierarchies, concepts of cache and virtual memories, storage systems, standard local buses, high-performance I/O, computer communication, basic principles of operating systems, multiprogramming, multiprocessing, pipelining and memory management. The architecture principles underlying RISC and CISC processors are presented in detail. The course also includes a number of design projects, including simulating a target machine, architecture using a high-level language (HLL). (Prerequisites: Undergraduate course in logic circuits and microprocessor system design, as well as proficiency in assembly language and a structured high-level language such as C or Pascal.)
This course provides an introduction to the theory and practice of the design of computer and communications networks, including the ISO seven-layer reference model. Analysis of network topologies and protocols, including performance analysis, is treated. Current network types including local area and wide area networks are introduced, as are evolving network technologies. The theory, design and performance of local area networks are emphasized. The course includes an introduction to queueing analysis and network programming. (Prerequisites: knowledge of the C programming language is assumed. CS 504 or ECE 502 or equivalent background in CS 5084 or CS 584.)
This introductory course develops a comprehensive understanding of Maxwell?s field theory as applied to high-frequency radiation, propagation and circuit phenomena. Topics include radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) propagation modes, transmission line aspects, Smith Chart, scattering parameter analysis, microwave filters, matching networks, power flow relations, unilateral and bilateral amplifier designs, stability analysis, oscillators circuits, mixers and microwave antennas for wireless communication systems. (Prerequisites: ECE 504 or equivalent, undergraduate course in electromagnetic field analysis.)
The application of electronics to energy conversion and control. Electrical and thermal characteristics of power semiconductor devices?diodes, bipolar transistors and thyristors. Magnetic components. State-space averaging and sampled-data models. Emphasis is placed on circuit techniques. Application examples include dc-dc conversion, controlled rectifiers, high-frequency inverters, resonant converters and excitation of electric machines. (Prerequisites: ECE 3204 and undergraduate courses in modern signal theory and control theory; ECE 504 is recommended.)
This course is an advanced introduction to the design of analog and mixed analog-digital integrated circuits for communication and instrumentation applications. An overview of bipolar and CMOS fabrication processes shows the differences between discrete and integrated circuit design. The bipolar and MOS transistors are reviewed with basic device physics and the development of circuit models in various operating regions. The use of SPICE simulation in the design process will be covered. Integrated amplifier circuits are developed with an emphasis on understanding performance advantages and limitation in such areas as speed, noise and power dissipation. Simple circuits are combined to form the basic functional building blocks such as the op-amp, comparator, voltage reference, etc. These circuit principles will be explored in an IC design project, which may be fabricated in a commercial analog process. Examples of possible topics include sample-and hold (S/H) amplifier, analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters, phase-locked loop (PLL), voltage-controlled oscillator, phase detector, switched capacitor and continuous-time filters, and sampled current techniques. (Prerequisite: Background in analog circuits both at the transistor and functional block [op-amp, comparator, etc.] level. Also familiarity with techniques such as small-signal modeling and analysis in the s-plane using Laplace transforms. Undergraduate course equivalent background ECE 3204; ECE 4902 helpful but not essential.)
Courses in this group are devoted to the study of advanced topics in electronic system design. See the SUPPLEMENT section of the on-line catalog at www.wpi.edu/+gradcat for descriptions of courses to be offered in this academic year.
This course is an in-depth study of the theory, design and performance of high-speed networks. Topics include specific high-performance network implementations and emerging technologies, including multimedia networks and quality of service issues. Topics associated with interconnecting networks such as bridges and routers will also be discussed. Performance analysis of networks will include basic queueing models. (Prerequisite: CS 513/ ECE 506.)
Detection of signals in noise, optimum receiver principles, M-ary detection, matched filters, orthogonal signals and representations of random processes. MAP and maximum likelihood estimation. Wiener filtering and Kalman filtering. Channel considerations: pre-whitening, fading and diversity combining. (Prerequisites: ECE 502 and ECE 504 or equivalent.)
This course covers advanced topics in the theory, design and performance of computer and communications networks. Topics will be selected from such areas as local area networks, metropolitan area networks, wide area networks, queueing models of networks, routing, flow control, new technologies and protocol standards. The current literature will be used to study new networks concepts and emerging technologies. (Prerequisite: CS 513/ ECE 506 and CS 533/ ECE 581.)
Overview of wireless information networks and personal communications systems: digital cellular, wireless PBX, cordless phone, wireless LAN, and mobile data, multimedia wireless and directions of the future. Radio propagation modeling for urban and indoor radio channels, coverage interface and cell size. Modulation techniques for efficient use of bandwidth resources. Methods to increase the data rate: antenna diversity and sectorization, adaptive equalization, multirate transmission and multiamplitude phase modulation. Spread spectrum for digital cellular, personal communications and wireless LAN applications. TDMA, CDMA, ALOHA, and CSMA, DECT, GSM, USDC, JDC, IEEE 802.11, WINForum, and HIPERLAN. (Prerequisite: Background in networks. Familiarity with probability, statistics and signal processing).
Courses in this group are devoted to the study of advanced topics in in Communication Theory and Signal Processing. See the SUPPLEMENT section of the on-line catalog at www.wpi. edu/+gradcat for descriptions of courses to be offered in this academic year.
This course presents fundamental concepts of digital image processing and an introduction to machine vision. Image processing topics will include visual perception, image formation, imaging geometries, image transform theory and applications, enhancement, restoration, encoding and compression. Machine vision topics will include feature extraction and representation, stereo vision, model-based recognition, motion and image flow, and pattern recognition. Students will be required to complete programming assignments in a high-level language. (Prerequisites: working knowledge of undergraduate level signal analysis and linear algebra; familiarity with probability theory is helpful but not necessary.)
Courses in this group are devoted to the study of advanced topics in the formulation and solution of theoretical or practical problems in modern control. See the SUPPLEMENT section of the on-line catalog at www.wpi.edu/+gradcat for descriptions of courses to be offered in this academic year.
Courses in this group are devoted to the study of advanced topics in energy systems. Typical topics include optimal power flow, probability methods in power systems analysis, surge phenomena, design of electrical apparatus, transient behavior of electric machines and advanced electromechanical energy conversion. See the SUPPLEMENT section of the on-line catalog at www.wpi. edu/+gradcat for descriptions of courses to be offered in this academic year.
VLSI Design introduces computer engineers and computer scientists to the techniques, methodologies and issues involved in conceptual and physical design of complex digital integrated circuits. The course presupposes knowledge of computer systems and hardware design such as found in ECE 505, but does not assume detailed knowledge of transistor circuits and physical electronics. (Prerequisite: ECE 505 or equivalent.)
Courses in this group are devoted to the study of advanced topics in solid state, for example: degenerate semiconductors, many-body theory, elastic effects and phonon conduction, and solar cells. To reflect changes in faculty research interests, these courses may be modified or new courses may be added. See the SUPPLEMENT section of the on-line catalog at www.wpi.edu/+gradcat for descriptions of courses to be offered in this academic year.
This Course covers techniques such as caching, hierarchical memory, pipelining and parallelism, that are used to enhance the performance of computer systems. It compares and contrast different approaches to achieving high performance in machine ranging from advanced microprocessors to vector supercomputers (CRAY, CYBER). It also illustrates how these techniques are applied in massively parallel SIMD machines (DAP, Connection Machine). In each case the focus is on the combined hardware/ software performance achieved and the interaction between application demands and hardware/software capabilities. (Prerequisites: This course assumes the material covered in ECE 505. The student should also have a background in computer programming and operating systems (CS 502). Familiarity with basic probability and statistics such as ECE 502 or MA 541 is recommended.
This is an introductory course on Verilog and VHDL, two standard hardware description languages (HDLs), for students with no background or prior experience with HDLs. In this course we will examine some of the important features of Verilog and VHDL. The course will enable students to design, simulate, model and synthesize digital designs. The dataflow, structural, and behavioral modeling techniques will be discussed and related to how they are used to design combinational and sequential circuits. The use of test benches to exercise and verify the correctness of hardware models will also be described. Course Projects: Course projects will involve the modeling and sysntesis and testing of systems using Xilinx tools. We will be targeting Xilinx FPGA and CPLDs. Students will need to purchase a FPGA or CPLD development board for project assignments. (Other VHDL tools may be used if these are available to the student at their place of employment.) Students will have the choice of completing assignments in either Verilog or VHDL. (Prerequisites: Logic Circuits and experience with programming in a high-level language (such as C or Pascal) and a computer architecture course such as ECE 505.)
This course gives a comprehensive introduction to the field of cryptography and data security. The course begins with the introduction of the concepts of data security, where classical algorithms serve as an example. Different attacks on cryptographic systems are classified. Some pseudo-random generators are introduced. The concepts of public and private key cryptography are developed. As important representatives for secret key schemes, DES and IDEA are described. The public key schemes RSA and ElGamal, and systems based on elliptic curves are then developed. Signature algorithms, hash functions, key distribution and identification schemes are treated as advanced topics. Some advanced mathematical algorithms for attacking cryptographic schemes are discussed. Application examples will include a protocol for security in a LAN and a secure smart card system for electronic banking. Special consideration will be given to schemes which are relevant for network environments. For all schemes, implementation aspects and up-to-date security estimations will be discussed. (Prerequisites: Working knowledge of C; an interest in discrete mathematics and algorithms is highly desirable. Students interested in a further study of the underlying mathematics may register for MA 4891 [B term], where topics in modern algebra relevant to cryptography will be treated.)
Courses in this group are devoted to the study of advanced topics in computer engineering such as real-time intelligent systems, VLSI design and high-level languages. See the SUPPLEMENT section of the on-line catalog at www.wpi. edu/+gradcat for descriptions of courses to be offered in this academic year.
Methods and concepts of computer and communication network modeling and system performance evaluation. Stochastic processes; measurement techniques; monitor tools; statistical analysis of performance experiments; simulation models; analytic modeling and queueing theory; M/M, Erlang, G/M, M/G, batch arrival, bulk service and priority systems; work load characterization; performance evaluation problems. (Prerequisites: CS 5084 or CS 504 or equivalent background in probability and some background in statistics.)
The presentations in the graduate seminar series will be of tutorial nature and will be presented by recognized experts in various fields of electrical and computer engineering. All full-time graduate students will be required to take both seminar courses, ECE 596A and ECE 596B, once during their graduate studies in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. The course will be given Pass/Fail. (Prerequisite: Graduate standing.)
Approved study of a special subject or topics selected by the student to meet his or her particular requirements or interests. Can be technical in nature, or a review of electrical and computer engineering history and literature of importance and permanent value. (Prerequisite: B.S. in ECE or equivalent.)
The course will cover a set of important topics in signal and image analysis: orthogonal signal decomposition, wavelet transforms, analytic signals, time-frequency estimation, 2D FT, Hankel transform and tomographic reconstruction. In addition, the course will each year have selected current topics in signal processing, e.g., ambiguity functions in RADAR and SONAR, coded waveforms, Fourier based beamforming for 2D arrays and single value decomposition. In place of a final exam, there will be a student project. The course is intended for students working in areas such as image analysis, NDE, ultrasound, audio, speech, RADAR, SONAR and date compression. Signal/ image theory and applications will be emphasized over coding; however, Matlab-based modules for self-paced signal/image visualization and manipulation will be part of the course. (Prerequisites: ECE 504 Analysis of Deterministic Signals and Systems, undergraduate course in linear systems theory and vector calculus.)
This course provides deeper insight into areas of cryptography which are of great practical and theoretical importance. The three areas treated are detailed analysis and the implementation of cryptoalgorithms, advanced protocols, and modern attacks against cryptographic schemes. The first part of the lecture focuses on public key algorithms, in particular ElGamal, elliptic curves and Diffie- Hellman key exchange. The underlying theory of Galois fields will be introduced. Implementation of performance security aspects of the algorithms will be looked at. The second part of the course deals with advanced protocols. New schemes for authentication, identification and zero-knowledge proof will be introduced. Some complex protocols for real-world application? such as key distribution in networks and for smart cards?will be introduced and analyzed. The third part will look into state-of-the-art cryptoanalysis (i.e., ways to break cryptosystems). Brute force attacks based on special purpose machines, the baby-step giant-step and the Pohlig-Hellman algorithms will be discussed. (Prerequisites: ECE 578/ CS 578 or equivalent background.)
This course introduces the fundamentals of information theory and discusses applications in compression and transmission of data. Measures of information, including entropy, and their properties are derived. The limits of loss less data compression are derived and practical coding schemes approaching the theoretical limits are presented. Lossy data compression tradeoffs are discussed in terms of the rate-distortion framework. The concept of reliable communication through noisy channels (channel capacity) is developed. Techniques for practical channel coding, including block and convolutional codes, are also covered. (Prerequisite: background in probability and random processes such as in ECE 502 or equivalent).
This course introduces a rigorous analytical treatment of modern digital communication systems, including digital modulation, demodulation, and optimal receiver design. Error performance analysis of these communication systems when operating over either noisy or band-limited channels will be conducted. Advanced topics to be covered include a subset of the following: MIMO, fading channels, multiuser communications, spread spectrum systems, and/or multicarrier transmission. (Prerequisites: An understanding of probability and random processes theory (ECE 502 or equivalent); an understanding of various analog and digital (de)modulation techniques (ECE 3311 or equivalent); familiarity with MATLAB programming.)
This graduate level course examines the principles of Power System Analysis. It will begin with a review of AC circuit analysis. The course will then cover the topics of transmission line parameter calculation, symmetrical component analysis, transformer and load modeling, symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis, power flow, and power systems stability. (Prerequisites: Knowledge of circuit analysis, basic calculus and differential equations, elementary matrix analysis and basic computer programming.)
This graduate level course provides detailed explanations of the physical mechanisms that control phenomena related to Power Quality. It addresses concepts that underlie harmonic generation and harmonic flow, and the modeling of voltage sags and swells. The effects of such disturbances on equipment (transformers, rotating machines, lamps, relays and converters) performance are studied by means of actual field cases. Frequency response of the grid, resonances and ferroresonances as well as electromagnetic interference are studied. Mitigation methods using advanced transformers connections, static, hybrid and active filters are modeled using real-life examples. Others topics covered are Power Quality measurements in the era of smart grid, Power Quality problems caused by Renewable Generators, and Engineering Economics issues related to Power Quality. (Prerequisites: ECE 5500 Power System Analysis. Also, this course presumes that the student has an understanding of basic electronics.)
This graduate level course introduces the student to the effects of electromagnetic transients in distribution systems. Topics include transient analysis, lightning and switching surges, mechanisms of transient generation, insulation coordination, grounding, surge protection devices, and shielding. (Prerequisite: ECE 5500 Power System Analysis)
This graduate level course will further explore alternating current circuits, three phase circuits, basics of electromagnetic field theory, magnetic circuits, inductance, and electromechanical energy conversion. Topics also include ideal transformer, iron-core transformer, voltage regulation, efficiency equivalent circuit, and three phase transformers. Induction machine construction, equivalent circuit, torque speed characteristics, and single phase motors, synchronous machine construction, equivalent circuit, power relationships phasor diagrams, and synchronous motors will be covered. Direct current machine construction, types, efficiency, power flow diagram, and external characteristics will be discussed.
This graduate level course seeks to provide an understanding of how interconnected power systems and their components are protected from abnormal events such as faults (short circuits), over-voltages, off-nominal frequency and unbalanced phase conditions. This subject is presented from a theoretical viewpoint, however, many practical examples and applications are included that emphasize the limitations of existing protective equipment. Course content is not specific to any particular manufacturer?s equipment. The course begins with a brief review of power system operation, three-phase system calculations and the representation (modeling) of power system elements. The modeling of current transformers under steady-state and transient conditions is presented with emphasis on the impact on protective devices. A unit on system grounding and its impact on protective device operation are included. Course emphasis then shifts to protective devices and their principles of operation. Both electromechanical and numeric relay designs are covered. The final course segments cover specific applications such as pilot protection of transmission lines, generator protection and transformer protection. (Prerequisite: ECE 5500 Power System Analysis)
This graduate level course is the first of a two course sequence that covers both the principles and practices of power system protective relaying. The course seeks to provide an understanding of how interconnected power systems and their components are protected from abnormal events such as faults (short circuits), over-voltages, off-nominal frequency and unbalanced phase conditions. This subject is presented from a theoretical viewpoint, however, many practical examples are included that emphasize the limitations of existing protective equipment. Course content is not specific to any particular manufacturer?s equipment. The course begins with a brief review of the nature of power system operation, power system faults and other abnormal conditions. The nature and objectives of protective relaying are covered next with emphasis on how the power system can be monitored to detect abnormal conditions. The computational tools needed to analyze system operation and apply protective relaying are covered next, including the per-unit system, phasors and symmetrical components. The modeling of current transformers under steady-state and transient conditions is presented with emphasis on the impact on protective devices. A unit on system grounding and its impact on protective device operation is included. Course emphasis then shifts to protective devices and their principles of operation. Both electromechanical and numeric relay designs are covered. (Prerequisite: ECE 5500 Power System Analysis or equivalent background experience is suggested. Familiarity with phasors, derivatives, transfer functions, poles and zeros, block diagram and the notion of feedback with basic understanding power system analysis or similar background is recommended. Note: Credit cannot be awarded for this course if credit has already been received for ECE 5520 Power System Protection and Control.)
This graduate level course covers advanced topics in the principles and practices of power system protective relaying. The course seeks to provide an understanding of how protective relays are applied to protect power system components. While the subject is presented from a theoretical viewpoint, many practical examples are included. Examples specific to both new installations and existing, older facilities will be included. Course content is not specific to any particular manufacturer?s equipment. The course begins with applications of protective devices to generators. This will include distributed generation as well as wind-turbine and inverter-connected sources. Transformer protection is covered next, including application procedures for older, electromechanical relays as well as modern numeric relay designs. A unit on bus protection is covered next, including all typical high-speed and time backup bus protection schemes. Transmission line and distribution feeder protection is covered in detail including both conventional and communications-assisted schemes. The course ends with a unit on other protection applications such as under frequency load shedding, reclosing and out-of-step relaying. (Prerequisite: ECE 5521 Protective Relaying. Note: Credit cannot be awarded for this course if credit has already been received for ECE 5520 Power System Protection and Control.)
This graduate level course is concerned with modeling, analyzing and mitigating power system stability and control problems. The course seeks to provide an understanding of the electromechanical dynamics of the interconnected electric power grid. This subject is presented from a theoretical viewpoint; however, many practical examples are included. The course begins with a description of the physics of the power system, frequency regulation during ?steady-state? operation, dynamic characteristics of modern power systems, a review of feedback control systems, power system frequency regulation, and a review of protective relaying. This is followed by material on synchronous machine theory and modeling. Simulation of power system dynamic response, small signal stability, transient stability analysis using SIMULINK and effects of non-traditional power sources on systems dynamics will also be covered. Power system stabilizers, load modeling and under frequency load shedding are covered in the final lectures. (Prerequisite: Familiarity with the basics of Laplace Transforms, derivatives, transfer functions, poles and zeros, block diagram and the notion of feedback with basic understanding power system analysis topics recommended. (ECE 5500 Power System Analysis and ECE 5511 Transients in Power Systems or equivalent background experience is suggested.)
This graduate level course introduces the fundamentals of power distribution systems, apparatus, and practices suited to new and experienced utility distribution engineers. Topics include distribution system designs, transformers and connections, practical aspects of apparatus and protection, principles of device coordination, grounding, voltage control, and power quality. (Prerequisites: Prior courses in magnetism and three-phase circuits. An electric machines course would be recommended.)
This graduate-level course deals with modern operation, control and planning for power systems. Topics include: Characteristics of generating units; Economic Dispatch; Unit Commitment; Effects of the transmission system on power delivery; Optimal Power Flow and Location Marginal Pricing; Power System Security; State Estimation for Power Systems; Power System Reliability Evaluation. Software tools such as MATLAB and power system simulator software will be used both in the classroom and in some homework assignments.
This graduate level course focuses on the theory and current professional practice in problems of electric power transmission. It begins with a review of the theory of AC electric power transmission networks and addresses a range of challenges related to reactive power and voltage control as well as steady-state and transients stability. Students will learn in detail the principles of traditional reactive power compensation (shunt reactors and capacitors); series compensation and modern static reactive compensation like SVC, STATCOM and other Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices. The effects of each of these types of compensation on static and dynamic voltage control, reactive power requirement and steady-state and transient stability problems are covered from theoretical as well as practical aspects. Particular attention is given to the mathematical models and principles of operation of many types of compensation systems. Basic principles of operation and control of High-Voltage DC (HVDC) systems and their impact on steady-state and dynamics of power system will be covered as well. (Prerequisite: ECE 5500 Power System Analysis.)
This project-based course integrates power systems engineering theory and practice, and provides the opportunity to apply the skills and knowledge acquired in the Power Systems curriculum. The project is normally conducted in teams of two to four students. Students are encouraged to select projects with practical significance to their current and future professional responsibilities. The projects are administered, advised, and evaluated by WPI faculty as part of the learning experience, but students are also encouraged to seek mentorship from experienced colleagues in the Power Systems profession. Prerequisites: Since the Capstone Project will draw on knowledge obtained throughout the degree program, it is expected that the student will have completed most or all of the coursework within their plan of study before undertaking the capstone project.