Terrain Considerations - O.C.O.K.A.

The following military aspects of terrain are as outlined in Army Field Manual 7-8, Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad (p.2-8).

TERRAIN FACTOR EXPLANATION
Observation and Fields of Fire  The potential offered to observe enemy approach and the fields of fire offered in terms of the range and other characteristics of weapons available.
Cover and Concealment  The potential for providing cover from both direct and indirect fire and concealment from enemy observation.
Obstacles In the attack, the effect of restrictive terrain on the maneuverability of the unit. On the defense, the availability of natural or man-made obstacles to disrupt, turn, fix, or block an enemy force and protect friendly forces from enemy assault.
Key Terrain  Terrain whose seizure or retention affords a marked advantage to either combatant. Hills, plateaus, or other terrain features which could provide an advantage to the element occupying that position would be considered key terrain.
Avenues of Approach  On the offense, avenues of approach afford greatest protection and places attackers at enemy vulnerable spots. In the defense, expected routes of enemy approach to a position, to be covered by fires from defenders.
 
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