Courses

BB 100X. EXPLORING BIOINFORMATICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY

Life scientists are generating huge amounts of data on many different scales, from DNA and protein sequence, to information on biological systems such as protein interaction networks, brain circuitry, and ecosystems. Analyzing these kinds of data requires quantitative knowledge and approaches using computer science and mathematics. In this project-based course, students will use case studies to learn about both important biological problems and the computational tools and algorithms used to study them. Students will study a sampling of topics in the field, including such areas as complex disease genetics, analysis of a flu epidemic, investigating antibiotic resistance, and understanding the behavior of swarms, such as schooling fish. Computational tools explored will include both freely-available web-based tools as well as guided programming using Python. Recommended background: High school biology. Programming experience is not required.

BB 125X. HUMAN BIOLOGY

BB 290X. MICROBES TO MOLECULES: CROWD SOURCING NOVEL ANTIBIOTIC DISCOVERY

BB 291X. PHAGE HUNTERS: THE QUEST

Students in this course will become part of a national crowd sourcing initiative to isolate and identify novel bacteriophage. Students will design experiments to initially isolate phage (bacterial viruses) from environmental samples they have collected, then characterize and determine their DNA sequence. The DNA sequences will be used in the follow-on bioinformatics course BB 351X Phage Hunters: The Analysis. Students in this course will make significant contributions to the field of genomics while gaining skill in the process of scientific inquiry, including hypothesis generation and testing, and practice in common microbiologic techniques. Recommended background: A working knowledge of biotechnology or microbiology (BB 1035 or BB 2002, or equivalent). Students enrolled in this course in AY 2015/16 must also enroll in BB 350X.

BB 301X. SIMULATION IN BIOLOGY

BB 350X. PHAGE HUNTERS: THE ANALYSIS

In this computer lab students will work with phage genomic sequences obtained from novel bacteriophages isolated in BB291X, Phage Hunters, The Quest. The raw genome files will be finished and oriented; students will then search the sequence to identify and map existing genes and other genomic components (sequence annotation). Additional course goals are to do an initial comparative genomic analysis and post-annotation experimentation. The ultimate goal is to produce novel bacteriophage genome sequences that are ready to be submitted to GenBank, the US repository of DNA sequence information at the National Institute of Health. Recommended bckground: BB291X Phage Hunters: The Quest; a working knowledge of genome structure and function ( BB 2920, BB2950, or equivalent).

BB 1001. INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY

Cat. I This course is designed for students seeking a broad overview of biologic concepts, especially at the cell and organism level. It is conducted in an active style including the use of case studies, class discussion/participation, and classroom polling systems. The major goal of this course is to help students become more informed citizens, skeptical when presented with data in the media, and knowledgeable enough to question and make informed decisions about scientific advances and science policy. It will primarily focus on current topics which may include stem cells, ethical uses of DNA, development of personalized medicine, genetic engineering, antibiotic resistance. This course is intended for non-life science majors. Recommended background: High School biology

BB 1002. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY

Cat. I This course is designed for students seeking a broad overview of ecological systems and the effect of humans on the ecosystems. It provides an introduction to natural ecosystems, population growth, and the interaction between human populations and our environment. It is conducted in an active style including the use of case studies, class discussion/participation, and classroom polling systems. The major goal of this course is to help students become more informed environmental citizens, skeptical when presented with data in the media, and knowledgeable enough to question and make informed decisions about the environment. It will primarily focus on current topics but areas of discussion likely to be covered include ecosystems, populations, biodiversity, pollution, environmental economics and climate change. This course is intended for non- life science majors. Recommended background: High School biology

BB 1025. HUMAN BIOLOGY

Cat. I This course presents students with an introduction to general concepts of human biology with particular focus on human structure and function. Concepts such as homeostasis, structure/function, and regulatory systems will be introduced. Discussion of current topics related to human health, such as personalized medicine and recent advances in cancer research and auto immune disease will be integrated throughout the course. This course is intended for BBT and other life science majors. Recommended background: a solid working knowledge of biological principles

BB 1035. INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY

Cat. I This course will cover topics including genes-to-proteins, cell cycle, genomics, synthetic and systems biology, stem cells and regenerative medicine, cellular signaling, personalized medicine, and the production of therapeutic biologics. Through lectures, discussion and project work, students will gain an understanding of the function of biological systems at the molecular and cellular level and explore their application through genetic and cellular engineering to biotechnology. Projects will be designed to facilitate students? understanding of the links between biological systems, biotechnology applications and their impact on society. This course is intended for BBT and other life science majors. Recommended background: a solid working knowledge of biological principles

BB 1045. BIODIVERSITY

Cat. I Through lectures, readings, and discussions this course will examine the breadth, patterns, mechanisms, and conservation of biodiversity. Case studies and peer-to-peer learning will be used to examine threats to regional and global biodiversity and assess management and engineering strategies for solutions to the biodiversity crisis. Students will investigate and interpret past and contemporary research to quantify, document, and track trends in biodiversity. This course will use problem sets and assignments to explore the natural, social, and economic tradeoffs associated with threats to and conservation of biodiversity. Students will develop an area of expertise and synthesize their comprehension of topics through project work (e.g., management plan, report, presentation, citizen science). Finally, this course will provide a synthesis of the interdisciplinary nature of biodiversity conservation and how principles of conservation biology, landscape ecology, metapopulation biology, and biogeography can be applied to strategies aimed towards sustaining Earth?s biota. This course is intended for BBT and other life science majors. Recommended Background: a solid working knowledge of biological principles

BB 2002. MICROBIOLOGY

Cat. I This course will introduce the basic principles of microbiology. It will focus on molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of a wide range of infectious diseases and host-pathogen interactions including a survey of human immunobiology. Students will gain an understanding of microbes that are of medical relevance including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoans, enabling them to make informed decisions about appropriate medical interventions. Students will be able to evaluate how their day-to-day choices impact public health as well as alter microbial communities. This interactive course is designed for all biology and biochemistry majors as well as other students who seek a good general education in modern biology. Recommended background: BB 1035 (Intro to Biotech), BB 2950 (Molecular Biology), BB2550 (Cell Biology) or equivalent

BB 2003. FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROBIOLOGY

This course will introduce the basic principles of microbiology through lectures, discussion, readings, and projects. The course will explore both the fundamental biology of microbes and the ways in which microbes influence society and the world. Topics will include the morphology, physiology, and genetics of unicellular organisms with a primary focus on bacteria. Special attention will be given to organisms known to have important roles in health, research, industry, and the environment. This course is designed for all biology majors and other students who seek a good general education in modern biology. Recommended background: A basic understanding of cell biology and elementary biochemical processes (BB 1035, BB 2550 or equivalent). Students may not receive credit for both BB 2002 and BB 2003

BB 2030. PLANT DIVERSITY

Cat. I This course focuses on general concepts as they relate to the vast array of plant species and their taxonomic links. Current uses of major plant phyla in both society and the biotechnology industry will be explored. Some emphasis will be given to economically important species chosen from agronomic and non-agronomic situations. Recommended background: BB 1045 (Biodiversity) or equivalent Students may not receive credit for both BB 2030 and BB 1040 (no longer offered).

BB 2040. PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY

Cat. I This course is intended to help students understand ecological concepts at different levels of integration, from individuals to ecosystems, and the linkages among them. Students will also practice the application of qualitative and quantitative models to ecological systems and processes, as well as hypothesis generation, experimental design, and analysis and interpretation of data. In a format that includes team-based case studies, discussion and presentations, and ecological simulations, students will explore topics in both basic and applied ecology, which may include population ecology, host-parasite ecology and epidemiology, climate change, and sustainable agriculture, among others. Recommended background: BB 1045 (Biodiversity) and MA 1021 and 1022 (Calculus I and II) or equivalent

BB 2050. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

Cat. I This course will provide an introduction to the scientific study of animal behavior. A combination of lecture, reading, and video will be used to illustrate how proximate and ultimate forces interact to shape animal behavior in complex and fascinating ways. Behavioral phenomena in all members of the animal kingdom will be discussed and analyzed from ecological, evolutionary, cognitive, and neurobiological perspectives to highlight how the use of an integrative approach has greatly accelerated our ability to solve complex behavioral problems. Primary scientific literature will be used to outline experimental tools and techniques used to investigate behavior in different contexts, including communication, foraging, navigation, mate choice, predation, and social behavior.

BB 2550. CELL BIOLOGY

Cat. I The goal of this course is to help students to develop a working understanding of the unifying concepts that define cell structure and function including replication, metabolism, regulation, communication and death. Applications in therapeutics, molecular medicine, and genetic engineering will be introduced. Classic and current research examples will provide practice in hypothesis generation and testing as well as making clear the importance of a working knowledge of cell biology to support advances in biotechnology and medicine. The course serves as the foundation of all fields of modern biology, and is recommended for all BBT and other life science majors. Recommended background: BB 1035 (Biotechnology) or equivalent

BB 2901. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY, AND GENETICS

Cat. I (1/6 unit) This course covers the basics laboratory techniques and knowledge needed for a career in biotechnology. It will also cover topics that are useful to those planning to go into a health profession. Examples of the types of techniques and experiences included in this course are: ? The use, handling of bacteria in the laboratory ? Identification of bacteria through staining and metabolic testing ? Aseptic technique ? Microscopy ? Handling, restriction digestion, and visualization of DNA ? Plasmid purification and cloning Recommended background: BB 1035 (Biotechnology) or equivalent

BB 2902. ENZYMES, PROTEINS, AND PURIFICATION

Cat. I (1/6 unit) This course gives basic practical experimental experience in enzymology, how enzymes work and how to purify them for later use. These techniques are the foundation the design and production of many therapeutic products. Examples of the types of techniques and experiences included in this course are: ? The action and optima of enzyme catalysis ? Induction of enzyme production ? Quantification and detection techniques for proteins ? Extraction and purification of protein from biological material using column chromatography ? Identification of compounds using Thin Layer Chromatography Recommended background: BB 1035 (Biotechnology)or equivalent

BB 2903. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Cat. I (1/6 unit) This course is an active exploration of a number of topics in anatomy and physiology through the use of simulations, measurement and hands on discovery. It will be particularly relevant to any student considering a heath related career, doing work where body structure is relevant or has interest in how body systems connect. A significant portion of this discovery will be accomplished by a hands-on dissection. Examples of the specific types of techniques and experiences included in this course are: ? Comparative and general anatomy of several organisms ? Physiology and function of body systems, processes and organs. ? Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) ? Microscopy Recommended background: BB 1025 (Human Biology) or equivalent

BB 2904. ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT, AND ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

Cat. I (1/6 unit) This course examines topics in ecology and animal behavior through hands on experimentation and simulation. Activities in this course include interactions and observation of live animals as well as some outdoor activities and environmental sampling. This course will be relevant to students who have an interest in biology at more than the individual organism level as well as those with majors involving environmental and ecological concerns. Examples of the specific types of techniques and experience included in this course are: ? Observing, recording, understanding, and analyzing animal behaviors ? Handling of organisms ? Environmental and ecological assessment and sampling ? Observations of population dynamics Recommended background: BB 1045 (Biodiversity) or equivalent

BB 2905. MICROBES TO MOLECULES

Using an authentic research project, students will gain skill in the process of scientific inquiry, including hypothesis generation and testing, and in common procedures of microbial culture and characterization. Students enrolled in the course will be part of a national student crowd sourcing initiative to identify novel antibiotics produced by soil bacteria in response to a decreasing supply of effective antibiotics and increased microbial resistance. Students will report their findings in a poster style format and will be able to see the results of other groups around the country as the course continues. Students may receive credit for only one of the courses BB2901, BB2905, or BB290X. Recommended background: A familiarity with current topics in biotechnology or microbiology such as those introduced in BB 1035 and BB 2002, or equivalent.

BB 2920. GENETICS

Cat. I Through interactive lectures, group problem solving, and analysis of primary scientific literature, this course will help students understand the gene concept and its application in modern biological analysis. This course will cover patterns of inheritance, the relationship between genotype and phenotype, and the transmission, coding, and expression of genetic information contained in DNA, in several model systems. Students will gain an understanding of the modern tools of genetic analysis, including gene cloning, creation of transgenic organisms, high-throughput sequencing and RNA interference. Applications of genetic analysis to current advancements in agriculture through crop improvements, and in human health, including gene therapy and personalized medicine, will be explored. Recommended background: BB 1035 (Biotechnology) or equivalent

BB 2950. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Cat. I Through a combination of lectures and in class discussion, students will learn and understand the essential concept of molecular biology, including the mechanisms by which information stored in nucleic acids is maintained and processed in living systems. An evolutionary framework will help illustrate how genomes are structured and how they change. Basic regulatory mechanisms of gene expression will be addressed, with emphasis in eukaryotic gene regulatory proteins. The concepts learned in this course will provide the foundation to continue exploring this rapidly expanding field. Recommended background: BB 1035 (Biotechnology) or equivalent

BB 3003. MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY: PLAGUES OF THE MODERN WORLD

Using a case study approach, this course will focus on molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of a wide range of infectious diseases and host-pathogen interactions including a survey of human immunobiology. Students will gain an understanding of microbes that are of medical relevance including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoans, enabling them to make informed decisions about appropriate medical interventions. Students will be able to evaluate how their day-to-day choices impact public health as well as alter microbial communities. This interactive course is designed for all biology and biochemistry majors as well as other students with the recommended background who have an interest in the pathogenesis of disease. Recommended background: a working knowledge of concepts in biotechnology, molecular biology and microbiology (BB 1035, BB 2950, and BB 2003 or equivalent)

BB 3010. SIMULATION IN BIOLOGY

Cat. II Computer simulations are becoming increasingly important in understanding and predicting the behavior of a wide variety of biological systems, ranging from metastasis of cancer cells, to spread of disease in an epidemic, to management of natural resources such as fisheries and forests. In this course, students will learn to use a graphical programming language to simulate biological systems. Most of the classroom time will be spent working individually or in groups, first learning the language, and then programming simulation projects. We will also discuss several papers on biological simulations from the primary scientific literature. In constructing and comparing their simulations, students will demonstrate for themselves how relatively simple behavioral rules followed by individual molecules, cells, or organisms can result in complex system behaviors. Recommended background: Students taking this course must have a solid background in a biological area they would like to simulate, at about the depth provided by a BB 3000 level class. No programming experience is assumed.

BB 3040. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND DATA ANALYSIS

Cat. II This applied course introduces students to the design of experiments and analysis of data. A combination of lecture, reading and discussion will be used to cover a variety of experimental situations occurring frequently in modern biology, including testing the fit of data to theoretical distributions, comparisons of groups, and regression analysis. Emphasis will be placed on the formulation of hypotheses, the design of experiments to test a formulated hypothesis, and the selection of appropriated statistical tests to perform. Readings from primary scientific literature will be used to illustrate the importance of experimental control as well as some of the most common errors made in choosing and performing statistical tests. Students will learn to use computer packages to carry out both parametric and non-parametric tests on their own experimental data. Recommended background: knowledge of statistics topics equivalent to those in MA 2610 or 2611, and any BB 3000 or 4000 level course or equivalent. This course will be offered in 2014-15 and alternating years thereafter.

BB 3080. NEUROBIOLOGY

Cat. I The nervous system underlies every aspect of our behavior, including sensation, movement, emotion, and cognition. In this course, students will develop an understanding of neurobiology at several levels, from the physiology of individual neurons, through the functioning of neural circuits, and finally to the behavior of neural systems such as vision, motion, and memory. The class will be based on lectures accompanied by in-class activities, and will include weekly discussion of a paper from the scientific literature. The class will focus each year on a guiding theme, such as a particular neurotransmitter system, and will emphasize research on human neurological problems, such as schizophrenia, addiction, Alzheimer's disease, and autism. Recommended background: BB2550 (Cell Biology), and either BB2920 (Genetics) or BB2950 Molecular Biology) or equivalent Suggested additional background: BB 3101 (Anatomy & Physiology: Movement and Communication) or equivalent

BB 3101. HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY: MOVEMENT AND COMMUNICATION

Cat. I The form and function of the systems that are responsible for the support, movement, internal communication, and interaction of the human body with its environment will be presented and discussed: Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous (including the senses), and Endocrine. Recommended background: BB 1025 and BB 2550. Suggested background: Concurrent Laboratory Module: BB 3511. Students who have received credit for BB 2130 may not take BB 3101 for credit.

BB 3102. HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY: TRANSPORT AND MAINTENANCE

Cat. I The form and function of the systems of the human body that provide for the intake, distribution, and processing of nutrients, water, and oxygen, and the systems that safeguard health by elimination of wastes, regulation of metabolism, and surveillance against disease will be presented and discussed. Digestive, Respiratory, Circulatory, Lymphatic, Endocrine, Urinary, and Reproductive. Recommended Background: BB 1025 and BB 2550; CH 1010 and CH 1020. Suggested background: Concurrent Laboratory Module: BB 3514. Students who have received credit for BB 3110 may not take BB 3102 for credit.

BB 3120. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND CELL CULTURE

Cat. II This course explores the remarkable physiology of plants and emphasizes their importance in past and future life on earth. Conserved and unique aspects of plant cellular physiology will provide the foundation to understand the challenges of life on land and multicellularity. Topics such as water relations, mineral nutrition, intra- and inter-cellular transport, photosynthesis, and light responses will be discussed. Examples from the recent literature will be used to illustrate some of the key existing problems in plant physiology. Recommended background: BB 1045 (Biodiversity), BB 2550 (Cell Biology) , CH 1020 (Forces and Bonding) or equivalent This course will be offered in 2014-15 and alternating years thereafter.

BB 3140. EVOLUTION: PATTERN AND PROCESS

Cat. II In this course, students will explore the foundations of micro- and macro-evolutionary theory and will learn to apply these fundamental evolutionary principles through critical analysis of the primary scientific literature. In a course format that emphasizes team-based case studies, discussion of recent and classic papers, and computer simulation of evolutionary processes, students will explore the evolutionary foundations of a wide range of biological disciplines, and will gain experience in critical evaluation of approaches, arguments, and points of view in the field. Topics may include the history of life on Earth; biogeography and the origins of biodiversity; host-pathogen coevolution; and genomic and molecular evolution, among others. Recommended background: BB2040 (Principles of Ecology), BB2920 (Genetics), MA 1021-1022 (Calculus I and II) or equivalent. This course will be offered in 2015-16 and alternating years thereafter.

BB 3511. NERVE AND MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY

Exercises in this course focus on computer and wet laboratory studies of nerve and muscle structure and function. Students will gain experience in hypothesis generation and testing, and will have extensive experience using an interactive biomedical/physiological data acquisition and analysis system. Recommended background: BB 2903 (Anatomy & Physiology), concurrent or prior registration in BB 3101 (Human Anatomy & Physiology: Movement and Communication) or equivalents

BB 3512. MOLECULAR GENETICS LAB

The topic of gene therapy will be used to give students experience with several fundamental skills in biotechnological research and practice: on-line information search and retrieval, computer cloning, and biological sequence analysis and manipulation. Course is entirely computer based. Recommended background: BB2901 (Molecular Biology, Microbiology and Genetics), BB2920 (Genetics), BB2950 (Cell Biology), and CH4110 (Biochem I) or equivalents

BB 3513. CELL CULTURE TECHNIQUES FOR ANIMAL CELLS

Cat. I (1/6 unit) Basic laboratory skills in mammalian cell culture to include cell counting, freezing and thawing cell lines, culture of suspension and attached cells. Recommended background: BB 2901, BB 2550 and knowledge of aseptic techniques. Concurrent or prior registration in BB 4008 is recommended.

BB 3514. CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY

Exercises in this course focus on wet laboratory and computer studies of circulatory and respiratory system structure, function and physiology. Students will gain experience in hypothesis generation and testing, and will be introduced to an interactive biomedical/physiological data acquisition and analysis system. Recommended background: BB 2903 (Anatomy & Physiology), concurrent or prior registration in BB 3102 (Human Anatomy & Physiology: Transport and Maintenance) or equivalents

BB 3516. SEPARATION TECHNIQUES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

A laboratory course in chromatographic and electrophoretic separation of proteins; chromatographic techniques will include two of the most commonly used in industry. Students will also gain experience with essential techniques in the molecular biologists tool kit: plasmid isolation, restriction digestion and electrophoretic separation of DNA. Recommended background: BB2902 (Enzymes, Proteins and Purification), BB2950 (Cell Biology), concurrent or prior registration in CH4110 (Biochem I) or equivalents

BB 3517. FERMENTATION

The experiments in this course focus on basic fermentation theory and practice, common to any bio-product production facility. Students will gain significant experience in hypothesis generation and testing as they work toward the goal of optimizing their proposed culture media. Recommended background: BB2901 (Molecular Biology, Microbiology and Genetics), BB2550 (Cell Biology)

BB 3518. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Laboratory investigations of select molecular characteristics of proteins and DNA; techniques include western and southern blotting. Recommended background: BB2901 (Molecular Biology, Microbiology and Genetics), BB2550 (Cell Biology), BB2950 (Molecular Biology) and CH4110 (Biochem I), concurrent or prior registration in CH4130 (Biochem III) or equivalents

BB 3519. PROTEIN PURIFICATION

This is a laboratory course focusing on the theory and practice of protein purification from a primary source. Chromatographic techniques will include two more of the most commonly used in the biotech industry. Recommended background: BB 2002 (Enzymes, Proteins and Purification) CH 4110 (Biochem I) or equivalents

BB 3520. RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

The exercises in this course include fundamental techniques in the biotech industry, as well as in many research labs: construction, isolation and mapping of recombinant DNA molecules, and use of the polymerase chain reaction to amplify a specific region of a target DNA strand. Recommended background: BB2901 (Molecular Biology, Microbiology and Genetics), BB2950 (Cell Biology) or equivalents.

BB 3521. MICROSCOPY

Cat. I (1/6 unit) A laboratory course in the theory and operation of light and electron microscopes, including specimen preparation, operation of equipment, and microphotography. Recommended background: BB 2901 and BB 2550.

BB 3524. BIOINFORMATICS LAB

Laboratory course giving students practice with some of the basic tools currently available for on-line literature searching, sequence data mining, comparison of nucleotide and/or protein sequences, and analysis of nucleotide and protein sequences. Course is entirely computer based. Recommended background: BB2901( Molecular Biology, Microbiology and Genetics), BB2920 (Genetics), BB2950 (Cell Biology), and CH4110 (Biochem I) or equivalents. Concurrent or prior registration in CH4130 is suggested. Students who have received credit for BB324X may not receive credit for BB3524.

BB 3525. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

Cat. I (1/6 unit) Basic studies in the biochemical and physical systems plants use to sustain life; includes an introduction to plant cell culture techniques. Recommended background: BB 1045 and BB 2903. Concurrent or prior registration in BB 3120 is recommended. Students who have received credit for BB 325X may not receive credit for BB 3525.

BB 3620. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

Cat. II Through lecture, reading, and discussion, this course will help students understand how developmental biologists study the development of a fertilized egg into a multi-cellular animal. Beginning with the description of developmental events, the major problems of developmental biology such as determination of cell fate, differentiation, and pattern formation will be explored. Emphasis will be placed on techniques such as analysis of mutations, molecular genetics, gene transfer, and the use of model organisms. Societal implications of the ability to control the outcome of development will be discussed. Recommended background: BB 2002 (Microbiology), BB 2550 (Cell Biology), BB 2920 (Genetics) or equivalent This course will be offered in 2015-16 and alternating years thereafter.

BB 3920. IMMUNOLOGY

Cat. I Through lecture, reading, and discussion, this course will help students understand the origin of immune cells in bone marrow development, the distinction between innate and adaptive immunity, and the function of the immune system in health and disease. The mechanisms responsible for the exquisite specificity of the adaptive immune system will be described. Throughout the course, the probable paths of evolution of the immune system will be stressed. As examples of major genetic diseases of immunity, case studies will be discussed on a weekly basis. Recommended background: BB 2550 (Cell biology), BB 2920 (Genetics), CH 4110 and 4120 (Biochemistry I and II) or equivalents.

BB 4008. CELL CULTURE THEORY AND APPLICATIONS

Cat. I Using readings from the literature, students will gain insight into the current uses of cultured cells in basic research and commercial production. Class discussion will explore the benefits and limitations of cells as model systems. Class size will be limited to allow a robust exchange of ideas and information among the participants. Recommended background: A working knowledge of cell biology, genetics, basic biochemistry (BB 2550, 2920, CH 4110 and 4120 or equivalents)

BB 4010. ADVANCED MOLECULAR GENETICS

Cat. I Emphasis will be on learning the newer trends in molecular genetics and their applications in biology and medicine using a variety of model systems. Students will gain an understanding of the similarities and differences in the mechanisms of transcription and translation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Principles and technologies of "omic?level" approaches, such as genomics and proteomics, and how they are transforming our understanding of biological processes and human diseases will be discussed. Recommended background: BB 2002(Microbiology), BB 2550 (Cell Biology) and BB 2920 (Genetics) and BB 2950 (Molecular Biology) or equivalents

BB 4065. VIROLOGY

Cat. I Through lectures and discussions of current and landmark scientific research articles, this advanced-level course will help elucidate the concepts related to viral structure, function, and evolution. The course will especially focus on data analysis and critique, covering topics in pathological mechanisms of various human disorders, especially emerging diseases. Applications and implications of the use of viruses in research will be introduced and discussed. Recommended background: BB 2550 (Cell Biology) or equivalent

BB 4150. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: PROBLEMS & APPROACHES

Cat. II In this course, students will examine what is known about ecological responses to both natural and human-mediated environmental changes, and explore sustainable approaches for solving complex ecological problems. In this seminar-format course, centered on case studies, discussions, and presentations, students will work to develop skills in critical analysis of information from both scientific and popular sources, and will gain extensive practice in oral and written communication. Areas of focus may include, and are not limited to, conservation genetics, ecological responses to global climate change, sustainable use of ecosystem services, and the environmental impacts of agricultural biotechnology. Recommended background: BB1045 (Biodiversity), BB2040 (Principles of Ecology), ENV1100 (Intro to Environmental Studies) or equivalent. This course will be offered in 2014-15 and alternating years thereafter.

BB 4190. REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION

Cat. I Through lectures, problem sets, reading and discussion, and presentations this course will help elucidate for students the processes that allow regulated gene expression, mechanisms used in each type of regulation, and methods and techniques used for investigation of regulatory mechanisms. Readings from the current original research literature will explore the growing use of model systems and "omics" level approaches to enhance our ever expanding understanding of the gene regulatory mechanisms. The development of cell based therapeutics and genetic engineering as they relate to gene regulation will be introduced. Recommended background Topics in Biochemistry I, II and III (CH 4110, 4120, 4130) and Advanced Molecular Genetics (BB 4010) or the equivalents.

BB 4550. ADVANCED CELL BIOLOGY

Cat. I Through lectures and discussions of current and landmark scientific research articles, this advanced-level course will help elucidate for the students concepts related to the molecular biology of cell function. The course will especially focus on data analysis and critique, covering topics in molecular medicine, biological mechanisms of autoimmune disorders, stem cells, gene therapy, neurotrophic factors, and Alzheimer's disease. Recommended background BB 2550 (Cell Biology) or equivalent

BB 4801. BIOINFORMATICS

Cat. II In an age when the amount of new biological data generated each year is exploding, every biologist should feel comfortable using bioinformatics tools to explore biological questions. This class will provide an understanding of how we organize, catalog, analyze, and compare biological data across whole genomes, covering a broad selection of important databases and techniques. Students will acquire a working knowledge of bioinformatics applications through hands-on use of software to ask and answer biological questions in such areas as genetic sequence and protein structure comparisons, phylogenetic tree analysis, and gene expression and biological pathway analysis. Recommended background: BB2920 (Genetics), BB2950 (Molecular Biology), and MA 2610 or 2611 (Statistics) or equivalent. This course will be offered in 2014-15, and in alternating years thereafter.

 
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