Distinguished Lecture Series in Biomedical Engineering
The Distinguished Lecture Series in Biomedical Engineering is designed to bring innovative leaders in the biomedical engineering field to the WPI campus to meet our outstanding faculty and students, and visit our interdisciplinary research facilities in the heart of Central Massachusetts.
Monday, September 14, 2020 12:00pm to 12:50pm
BME Distinguished Lecture Series: "The Virtual Cell Project" by Leslie Loew, PhD, Professor and Director, UCONN Medical School - Via ZoomLeslie Loew, PhDProfessor of Cell BiologyDirector of the Richard D. Berlin Center for Cell Analysis and ModelingBoehringer Ingelheim Chair in Cell SciencesUCONN School of MedicineAbstract: Cells and the tissues that they form are composed of highly regulated dynamic chemical factories containing millions of different interacting molecular species within multiple flexible and geometrically intricate compartments. Transport of molecules through membranes separating these compartments is regulated by both chemical and electrical signals. The energy produced in biochemical reactions can also be transduced to generate mechanical force to drive alterations in cell shape, cell division or cell migration. To understand how all these physical and chemical events are coordinated to produce the multitude of specialized cell functions is the long-term ambition of the Virtual Cell (VCell) Project. VCell is a modular computational framework that is easily accessible to cell biologists and that permits construction of models, application of numerical solvers to perform simulations, and analysis of simulation results. VCell supports a number of key biophysical mechanisms, including reaction kinetics, diffusion, flow, membrane transport, lateral membrane diffusion, electrophysiology and rule-based models of multi-state/multimolecular interactions. Simulations can be based on 0D, 1D, 2D or 3D analytical or experimental image-based geometries. Users may choose among multiple available simulation approaches: ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, stochastic reaction kinetics, network-free simulations, spatial particle-based simulations and spatial hybrid stochastic/deterministic simulations. As of September, 2020, more than 23,000 users have registered to download VCell or access the VCell database. They have collectively stored more than 95,000 models and 600,000 simulations in the VCell database system, and over 1,100 models were made public by their owners to be available to the world-wide VCell community.Biography: Leslie M. Loew is Professor of Cell Biology, Director of the Richard D. Berlin Center for Cell Analysis and Modeling (CCAM) and holds the Boehringer Ingelheim Chair in Cell Sciences at the UCONN School of Medicine. He established CCAM in 1994 to consolidate research in new optical, photonic, image processing and computational techniques for the investigation of the behavior of living cells. He also holds an appointment as Professor of Computer Science and Engineering within the UCONN School of Engineering. In July 2012, he was selected by the Biophysical Society to serve a 5 year term as Editor in Chief of Biophysical Journal.Dr. Loew pioneered the synthesis of fluorescent dyes to probe membrane potential, including di-4-ANEPPS, considered the gold standard voltage sensitive dye (VSD). He has applied his) VSDs to imaging electrical activity in neuronal and cardiac systems, including measurement of electrical signals in single dendritic spines. He supplies VSDs to hundreds of laboratories throughout the world and recently helped establish a company, Potentiometric Probes, LLC, to help disseminate the VSD technologies. Dr. Loew has developed several high resolution imaging approaches toward recording spatio-temporal activity in single cells and tissue. Using a VSD he invented, TMRE, he was the first to quantitatively image mitochondrial membrane potential in live cells with sufficient resolution to follow the voltage in individual mitochondria. Another major contribution to live cell imaging was the introduction of high resolution second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, which has since been adopted for 3D non-invasive imaging of many intrinsic biological molecules. He is probably best known for his work in computational modeling of cell biophysics. With his colleagues, he developed the Virtual Cell computational system for modeling and simulating complex biological processes. It is the only software to permit stochastic or deterministic simulation of both compartmental kinetic models (ODEs) and full reaction diffusion systems (PDEs) in arbitrary 3D geometries (including from experimental microscope images). Since 1998, he has been the PI of an NIH Research Resource Center, which supports the Virtual Cell project. Virtual Cell has over 23,000 registered users worldwide. He has recently moved down in spatial and temporal scales to publish several papers modeling multi-molecular cell signaling clusters, including a spatial modeling tool, SpringSaLaD, employing Langevin dynamics.Please contact Ina Gjencaj (email@example.com) for a Zoom Link to this event.
Monday, October 05, 2020 12:00pm to 12:50pm
BME Distinguished Lecture Series: "The Mitral Valve - From cellular biophysics to surgical repair" by Michael Sacks, PhD, Professor, The University of Texas at Austin - Via ZoomMichael Sacks,PhDW. A. “Tex” Moncrief, Jr. EndowmentChair in Simulation-based Engineering SciencesInstitute for Computational Engineering and SciencesProfessor of Biomedical EngineeringThe University of Texas at Austin
Abstract:Heart valves regulate the unidirectional blood flow and normal functioning of the heart. Currently, repair and replacement of the mitral valve is the most common heart valve treatment in the United States. While successful in the short term, there remains major issues with long-term treatment outcomes, largely due to the limitations in our understanding of mitral valve disease and means to develop improved treatment modalities. High-fidelity computer simulations provide a means to connect the cellular function with the organ-level valve via tissue mechanical responses, and to help the design of optimal repair strategies and novel biomaterials. As in many physiological systems, one can approach heart valve biomechanics from using multiscale modeling (MSM) methodologies, since mechanical stimuli occur and have biological impact at the organ, tissue, and cellular levels. Yet, MSM approaches of heart valves are scarce, largely due to the major difficulties in adapting conventional methods. Moreover, existing physiologically realistic computational models of heart valve function make many assumptions, such as a simplified micro-structural and anatomical representation of the valves, and thorough validations with in-vitro or in-vivo data are still limited. Finally, few attempts have been made to connect the underlying cellular function with changes in tissue and organ level stresses, which are paramount to improving our understanding of the effects of mitral valve repair on the underlying tissue degenerative processes. Details of what we know about mitral heart valve function and how these are being integrated into left-ventricle models can guide such approaches will be presented.
Biography: Professor Sacks is a world authority on cardiovascular modeling and simulation, particularly on developing patient-specific, simulation-based approaches for the understanding and treatment of heart and heart valve diseases. His research is based on multi-scale modeling, quantification, and simulation of the biophysical behavior of the constituent cells and tissues and translation to the organ level in health, disease, and treatment. For example, he has developed novel non-invasive methods to quantify pre- and post-surgical state of the mitral valve from pre-surgical clinical images. He has determined the how local stress environments of heart valve interstitial cells alter their biosynthetic responses in the context of altered heart and valvular organ-level responses. His research also includes developing novel cardiac models to simulate growth and remodeling of the myocardium in pulmonary hypertension, the first full 3D approach for left ventricular myocardium mechanical behavior. Dr. Sacks is also active in modeling replacement heart valve materials and in understanding the in-vivo remodeling processes.
Please contact Ina Gjencaj at firstname.lastname@example.org for a Zoom link to this seminar.
Monday, November 30, 2020 12:00pm to 12:50pm
BME Distinguished Lecture Series| Tammy Haut Donahue, PhD| Professor in Biomedical Engineering| UMass Amherst| via ZoomTammy Haut Donahue, PhDProfessorDepartment of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Massachusetts, Amherst
DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL BLOCK COPOLYMER HYDROGEL FOR MENISCAL REPLACEMENT
Abstract: Menisci are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous tissues responsible for distributing tibial-femoral contact pressure and are crucial for maintaining healthy joints and preventing osteoarthritis. Meniscal damage can be caused by age related degradation, obesity, overuse from athletic activities, and trauma. Due to their primarily avascular nature, once damaged there is limited healing capacity and surgical intervention is often required. Limited technologies exist to replace damaged menisci, and standard treatment is to leave asymptomatic damage alone or perform partial meniscectomies, however, these treatment options lead to increased risk of OA. Attempts at tissue engineered meniscal scaffolds, and replacements have had mixed results due to design limitations and inability to recapitulate native tissue’s material properties, shape, and pressure distribution. This presentation will detail the development of an artificial meniscus from a polystyrene-polyethylene oxide diblock copolymer. Material properties of the novel artificial meniscus will be detailed, in addition to molding a 3D construct for joint implantation and the ability of the copolymer hydrogel meniscus to protect the underlying articular cartilage. Recent advances in material development will be discussed. We expect this meniscal replacement to provide a revolutionary addition to the field of osteoarthritis and treatment following meniscal injury.
Biography: Tammy Haut Donahue joined the faculty at The University of Massachusetts, Amherst in June 2018. She was the inaugural chair of the newly established Biomedical Engineering Department. She came to UMass after spending seven years in Mechanical Engineering at Colorado State University. Her PhD was in Biomedical Engineering from the University of California at Davis where she earned the Allen Marr Award for distinguished dissertation in Biomedical Engineering in 2000. She is an Editorial Consultant for the Journal of Biomechanics, and was integral in the establishment of the Orthopaedic Research Society Meniscus Section. Dr. Haut Donahue’s research includes analytical and experimental biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system with ongoing research in orthopedic biomechanics and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. An emphasis is put on prevention, treatment, and repair of injuries to the soft tissue structures of the knee, focusing primarily on the meniscus. With over $15 million in funding from Whitaker Foundation, CDMRP, NIH, NSF, as well as industrial sponsorship her research program has had more than 60 mentees. Dr. Haut Donahue has more than 80 peer-reviewed publications. Dr. Haut Donahue was awarded the Ferdinand P. Beer and E. Russell Johnson Jr. Outstanding New Mechanics Educator Award from the American Society of Engineering Education for exceptional contributions to mechanics education. Dr. Haut Donahue is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Please contact Ina Gjencaj at email@example.com for a zoom link to this event.