1. Purpose and Scope:
The Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Radiation, Health, and Safeguards Committee (RHSC) is dedicated to providing a safe environment for the use of radioactive material at WPI. This document contains a concise summary of regulations for radiation facilities and for the handling of radioactive materials at WPI, as established by the RHSC, by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC or NRC), and by the Massachusetts State Government. The USNRC regulations known as 10 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 30: "Licensing for Byproduct Material," and 10 CFR 20:"Standards for Protection Against Radiation," as well as 105 CMR (Code of Massachusetts Regulations) 120.000: "Rules and Regulations to Control the Radiation Hazards of Radioactive Materials and of Machines which Emit Ionizing Radiation" are of special importance to the committee.
No set of regulations can ensure safety in the use of radioactive isotopes. The essentials are an understanding of the nature of the danger, and care in applying this knowledge in the handling of radioactive materials.
Due to the concise nature of this document and the frequency of changes to government regulations, this document should be used only as a supplement to federal and to state regulations.
1.1. The purpose of this document is to:
1.1.1. Ensure that every reasonable effort is taken at WPI to maintain exposures of radiation to personnel and to members of the public as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA).
1.1.2. Fulfill WPI's legal obligations.
1.2. This document is applicable to all individuals who receive, possess, use, transfer, or dispose of ionizing radioactive material at WPI.
NOTE: Definitions to selected terms may be viewed in Appendix A.
2.1. The RHSC is comprised of representatives appointed by the administration. Membership is consistent with the provisions of 10 CFR 33 "Specific Domestic Licenses of Broad Scope for Byproduct Material".
3. Rights and Responsibilities:
Representatives of the RHSC, the USNRC or the State may inspect a WPI facility at any time.
3.1. The RHSC is responsible for:
3.1.1. Establishing WPI radiation regulations.
3.1.2. Fulfilling the requirements of the USNRC pertinent to WPI's Nuclear Reactor Facility's License.
3.1.3. Satisfying USNRC requirements relevant to WPI's Byproduct Materials License.
3.1.4. Providing adequate information for and dealing with the WPI community's radiological health and safeguards concerns.
3.1.5. Approval and Audit of Authorized Radioisotope Users and uses of radioactive materials covered under the Byproduct Materials License.
188.8.131.52. In approving Authorized Radioisotope Users, consideration shall be given to the following items.
(1) Adequacy of facilities and equipment.
(2) Training and experience of the user as specified in 10 CFR 30.15b.
(3) Operation or handling procedures associated with the work that the user wishes to do.
184.108.40.206. Audits of all Authorized Radioisotope Users shall be made annually at the July meeting of the RHSC, consideration shall be given to the following items.
- Adequacy of facilities and equipment.
- Training and experience of the user.
- Operation or handling procedures associated with the work that the user wishes to do.
220.127.116.11. All reviews and approvals shall be made prior to actual use of radioactive materials by the Radioisotope User.
3.1.6. Evaluating and approving suggestions and recommendations for modifications to reactor equipment, to the Nuclear Reactor Facility's operating and maintenance procedures, to WPI Health Physics procedures, and to the WPI Byproduct Materials License.
3.1.7. Conveying the needs of the radiation protection program to the WPI administration.
3.1.8. Monitoring and regulating machines that produce ionizing radiation (i.e.: accelerators, X-ray diffraction machines, etc.).
3.1.9. Evaluating and approving experiments and experimental procedures involving the Reactor and Byproduct Materials Licenses.
3.1.10. Ensuring that OSHA standards pertinent to the use of ionizing radiation are not violated.
3.1.11. Reviewing permits for approved use of radioactive materials on campus.
18.104.22.168. Reviews of all permits shall be conducted annually at the July meeting of the RHSC.
22.214.171.124. The committee should examine all pertinent aspects of the lab under review including:
- Audits of Authorized Users associated with the lab being reviewed.
- Previous record of inspections by the Radiation Safety Office.
- Quantities of radioisotopes being used in the lab.
3.2. The Radiological Safety Officer (RSO) (see notes appearing at the end of this section) is responsible for:
3.2.1. Conducting inspections and reviews to verify that Authorized Radioisotope Users comply with the WPI RHSC's regulations
(Note: The Assistant RSO, if appointed, may conduct inspections).
3.2.2. Addressing emergency situations and requests for action concerning radioactive materials.
3.2.3. Coordinating the film badge service and maintaining records of exposure to personnel.
3.2.4. Auditing exposure and release records annually, determining if they are ALARA, and taking corrective action as necessary.
3.2.5. Ordering radioactive material and maintaining a current inventory of radioisotopes at WPI (Note: The RHSC may authorize additional individuals to order radioactive material).
3.2.6. Supervising and coordinating the radioactive waste disposal program.
3.2.7. Performing or arranging for the calibration of instruments.
3.2.8. Supervising and coordinating radiological safety training (see chapter 5).
3.2.9. Ensuring that records are maintained as required by federal, state, and local regulations.
3.2.10. Updating the RHSC on changes to USNRC regulations that affect the use of radioisotopes at WPI.
Note 1: The RSO shall be qualified by training and by experience in radiation protection, and shall be available for advice and for assistance on radiological safety matters.
Note 2: An Assistant Radiological Safety Officer, if appointed by the Provost, shall function with the authority of the RSO in the absence of the RSO.
Note 3: The RSO and the Assistant RSO (if appointed) shall be members of and act in cooperation with the RHSC.
Note 4: One individual may serve as the RSO for both the Byproduct Materials License and for the Nuclear Reactor Facility's License. Alternately, the licenses may have separate RSOs.
3.3. Authorized Radioisotope Users and individuals responsible for machines producing ionizing radiation are liable for:
3.3.1. All personnel who may be exposed to radiation, including visitors, personnel in neighboring laboratories, etc.
3.3.2. Determining that the intent of any USNRC or State or RHSC rules is carried out in every respect, and that no regulations are violated.
3.3.3. Identifying any problems in their jurisdiction arising from RHSC, USNRC, or State regulations. They shall consult with the RSO, with the RHSC, and/or with the USNRC as appropriate and shall take prompt action to see that the problems are referred to higher authority if they cannot be resolved.
3.3.4. Maintaining a safe work environment in the laboratory.
3.3.5. Ensuring that all participating personnel receive radiation protection training as well as any additional training that may be required (see Section 5).
3.3.6. Adequately supervising all participating personnel.
3.3.7. Arranging film badge service with the RSO and arranging for physical examinations where required.
3.3.8. Reporting all unusual occurrences involving radiation and/or radioactive material to the RHSC.
3.3.9. Submitting established written procedures of normal experimental activities to the RHSC.
3.3.10. Routine surveying of his/her own operations and reporting of abnormal results to the RHSC.
3.3.11. Keeping written records of the disposition of all radioisotopes acquired and reporting to the RHSC such disposition.
3.3.12. Posting proper regulatory caution signs and providing adequate information for use in case of emergencies arising when he/she is not present.
3.3.13. Securing the approval of the RHSC for any substantial changes in experimental and/or radiation working conditions.
3.3.14. Securing the approval of the RHSC for the use of any non-exempt radioisotope quantities. No radioisotopes may be used at WPI without the knowledge of the RHSC.
3.3.15. Enforcing all other safety procedures as recommended herein or by the RHSC or by the RSO.
3.4. Each Radiation Worker is responsible for:
3.4.1. Following and maintaining, to the extent within his/her control, the applicable provisions of the RHSC for the protection of personnel from exposures to radiation and to radioactive material.
3.4.2. Minimizing his/her own exposure to radiation. The RSO will provide guidance and assistance, however, ultimately, each individual is responsible for his/her own exposure to radiation.
3.4.3. Reporting promptly to their supervisor (the Authorized Radioisotope User or the individual responsible for machines producing ionizing radiation) any conditions which may lead to or may cause a violation of NRC, State, or RHSC regulations or may lead to unnecessary exposure to radiation.
3.4.4. Informing themselves of their rights to:
126.96.36.199. Receive information on radiation, radiation risks and current plant work environments.
188.8.131.52. Receive a report from the Radiation Safety Officer of his/her exposure to radiation.
184.108.40.206. Choose to decline to enter Restricted Areas. In such a case he/she must make that decision known to his/her supervisor immediately.
220.127.116.11. Consult privately with an NRC inspector. The Office of the Inspector General hotline as well as the NRC Regional Offices telephone numbers are located on NRC Form 3.
4.1. All personnel and visitors entering restricted areas shall receive training in radiation protection sufficient for the work or visit or shall be escorted by an individual who has received such training. Training is not required for persons in an unrestricted area.
4.2. Individuals permitted unescorted access to restricted areas shall receive training in radiation protection. The initial training should cover the following areas in commensurate detail for the individual's duties:
4.2.1. Access and egress control and escort procedures.
4.2.2. Radiological safety principles, policies and procedures.
4.2.3. Personnel dosimetry, exposure history, records availability.
4.2.4. Monitoring instruments and protective devices.
4.2.5. Protective equipment.
4.2.6. Radiation areas, high radiation areas, and very high radiation areas.
4.2.7. Use, storage, and transfer of radioactive materials.
4.2.8. Posting and labeling requirements.
4.2.9. ALARA and exposure limits.
4.2.10. Radiation hazards and health risks, e.g., somatic, genetic, and teratogenic risks.
4.2.11. Individual emergency response requirements (i.e., actions to be taken by the individual).
4.2.12. Regulatory and procedural rules, including reporting of unsafe conditions.
4.3. Radiation protection retraining should be conducted annually. It shall be conducted at least biennially. It should include a condensed version of the initial training with emphasis on changes in policies, procedures, requirements, and facilities. Operations personnel who participate in a requalification program that includes radiation protection need not participate in this retraining program.
4.4. Records of all training for users of radioactive materials on campus shall be maintained and stored by the Radiation Safety Office. Records are to include a list of topics covered, the amount of time spent, the date(s), the instructor(s) and the student(s).
5. Radioactive Material Control:
5.1. Byproduct materials shall be maintained or stored in a restricted area or shall be under the control of authorized individuals until they are transferred or disposed of as waste. Records of transfers of non-exempt quantities out of the facility, or of disposal, shall be maintained.
5.2. Access to all restricted areas are controlled by locks. Authorized Radioisotope Users and individuals responsible for machines producing ionizing radiation shall control access to the keys to their own facility. The Radiation Safety Officer shall be issued a key to each restricted area.
5.3. Proper caution signs, including a sign bearing the radiation caution symbol, shall be conspicuously posted on the door of any room designated as a restricted area. One sign shall be posted naming the Authorized Radioisotope User for the area and listing his/her office telephone number. All signs shall conform to 10 CFR 20 provisions.
5.4. Containers holding radioisotopes must be labeled in accordance with 10CFR20.
5.5. A monitoring instrument capable of detecting the radiation emitted shall be quickly available to any restricted area and should be used regularly to check for contamination. This instrument shall be calibrated annually.
5.6. A properly labeled and shielded storage space must be provided for radiation sources.
5.7. Radioactive Wastes (materials other than effluents) shall be maintained in a restricted area or shall be under the control of authorized individuals until they are transferred for disposal.
5.7.1. Records of transfers and disposals shall be maintained and shall include the date of storage, and the date and results of surveys at the time of disposal.
5.7.2. Decay in storage:
18.104.22.168. Areas shall be designed so that the exposure rate at the surface of the final layer of containment does not exceed 1 mrem/hr.
22.214.171.124. The final layer of containment shall be labeled as containing radioactive material regardless of radiation levels at the surface.
126.96.36.199. Materials being held for decay in storage must be held for at least 10 half-lives and then surveyed to insure that they meet the requirements for release for unrestricted use as established in Section 6.
5.8. Transfers and disposals of wastes shall be in accordance with USNRC rules given in 10CFR20. The RSO should be consulted for advice on disposal methods.
5.9. No volatile radioactive isotopes or laboratory practices that could lead to the inhalation of radioactive materials will be used on campus.
5.10. Eating, drinking or smoking is strictly prohibited in restricted areas. Signs shall be conspicuously posted which state this fact.
5.11. Copies of the following items are required to be maintained in "High Radiation Areas" and in "Radiation Areas":
- RHSC Radiation Regulations
- USNRC Regulations 10 CFR 19 and 10CFR20
- NRC Form 3
- The current byproduct material license
5.12. Transfers of radioactive material shall be made only to Authorized Radioisotope Users.
5.12.1. The RSO shall be notified prior to any transfer.
5.12.2. Records of all transfers shall be maintained.
5.13. Special Nuclear Material shall be located in a restricted area or shall be under the control of authorized individuals. Records of inventories and transfers of Special Nuclear Material shall be maintained.
5.14. Other Radioactive Material (i.e.: radioactive reactor components, experimental facilities, contaminated tools and fixtures, and other radioactive materials) shall be maintained in restricted areas or shall be under the control of authorized individuals. These items may be released by authorized individuals for unrestricted use following decontamination. Decontamination limits are defined in ANSI/ANS-15-11-1993, section 5.4. Alternately, they may be disposed of as radioactive waste.
6. Contamination Control: (For experiments involving powdered or liquid radioactive isotopes)
6.1. Personnel shall monitor hands, clothing, bottom of shoes, and work areas for contamination at established monitoring control points in the facility:
- At the end of each procedure
- Previous to exiting the work area
- At frequent intervals during the experiment
- At any time personal contamination is suspected
6.2. Materials, tools, and equipment shall be surveyed for contamination before removal from contaminated areas or restricted areas where contamination is likely. All glassware, tools, waste, etc. found to contain surface radioactive contamination shall be properly labeled and stored.
6.3. Trays shall be used for performing all operations involving radioisotopes.
6.4. Bench tops shall be covered with easily decontaminated or removable materials during experiments (i.e.: absorbent paper with waterproof backing, strippable paints, easily replaceable asphalt tile, or linoleum floor coverings).
6.5. Proper techniques shall be used at all times (i.e.: mechanical pipetting, using tongs for handling hot samples, utilizing double containers for solutions, using rubber gloves when there is danger of contaminating the hands, utilizing adequate shielding, etc.).
6.6. If there is any suspected radioactive contamination of benches, floors, etc., the area shall be covered and roped off, and warnings shall be posted. The RSO shall be promptly notified and shall supervise cleanup operations. The department involved shall be held fully responsible for removing contamination to the satisfaction of RHSC.
6.7. Contaminated areas, potentially contaminated areas, and restricted areas where contamination is likely shall be surveyed routinely for contamination levels.
6.8. Contamination limits:
188.8.131.52. Clothing with contamination (fixed or removable) exceeding twice background should not be worn.
184.108.40.206. Skin contamination should not exceed twice background.
6.8.2. Equipment shall be deemed unusable if contamination is found in excess of those values in Table 6.1.
6.8.3. Surfaces, such as floors or countertops, shall be deemed unusable if contamination is found in excess of those values in Table 6.1.
6.8.4. If contamination greater than the above levels is found, the RSO shall be contacted promptly.
6.8.5. Any spills, accidents, or releases involving more than ten times quantities in Appendix C of 10 CFR 20 must also be reported immediately to the RHSC.
6.8.6. The release of facilities or equipment for unrestricted use requires that the facility or equipment 1.) be surveyed for both fixed and removable contamination, and 2.) the surveys have been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer.
Guidelines for Radioactive Surface Contamination
(From Health Physics Society draft standard ANSI N13.12 1987)
|Group No.||Group Description||Total Activity Removable + Fixed dpm/100cm2|
|(1)||All a emitters (except those in (4)) plus 210Pb (210Po) and 228Ra (228Th)||20|
|(2)||90Sr, 125I, 126I, 129I, 131I||200|
|(3)||All b, g -emitters not in groups (1), (2) or (4)||1,000|
|(4)||Uranium (natural, enriched < 10%), Thorium (natural)||200|
7. Radiation Monitoring:
All efforts shall be made to ensure that public radiation exposures are maintained ALARA. Portable radiation detection instruments or area monitors with remote readouts shall be used to monitor public radiation exposures. Alternately, personal monitoring equipment (i.e.: a pocket dosimeter) may be used for group monitoring.
7.1. Facility Monitoring
The classification of a single laboratory containing radioisotopes or of a radiation facility may change depending upon its function at a particular time.
Following an initial survey, the RHSC shall be informed of any change in restricted area designation that will exist for more than 72 hours.
7.1.1. Area Radiation and Personnel Monitoring
220.127.116.11.High Radiation Area
18.104.22.168.1. All individuals entering this area shall wear personnel monitoring equipment in the form of a film badge or a pocket dosimeter. Portable radiation detection instruments or area monitors with remote readouts shall also be used.
22.214.171.124.2. Entry of an individual into a high radiation area shall energize a conspicuously visible or audible alarm. In the case of a high radiation area established for a period of 30 days or less, this alarm device is not required.
126.96.36.199. Radiation Area
188.8.131.52.1. Individuals likely to receive an exposure greater than 10% of their 10CFR20 annual limit shall wear personal monitoring equipment in the form of a film badge, pocket dosimeter, TLD or other acceptable form of dosimetry. (An exposure of 40 mrem during one month may be used as a guideline.) Portable radiation detection instruments or area monitors with remote readouts shall also be used.
184.108.40.206. Radioactive Materials Area
220.127.116.11.1. Individuals working with licensable quantities of radioactive material shall wear personal monitoring equipment in the form of a film badge, pocket dosimeter, TLD or other acceptable form of dosimetry.
18.104.22.168. Bioassay shall be performed by the RSO if applicable.
7.1.2. Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring
22.214.171.124. Airborne radioactive material should be monitored whenever the exposure in restricted areas is expected to exceed 4 DAC-hours in 7 consecutive days and shall be monitored if the exposure is expected to exceed 200 DAC-hours in 1 year. For submersion nuclides, the criteria for monitoring are 25 mrem (0.25 mSv) in 7 consecutive days and 100 mrem (1 mSv) in 1 year at the point of maximum dose rate. Levels of airborne radioactive material less than 4 DAC- hours in seven consecutive days should be characterized but do not require routine monitoring. (Note: Monitoring may not be required.)
126.96.36.199. Airborne Radioactivity may be monitored through the use of a continuous, particulate or gaseous radioactive material air monitor capable of achieving the criteria specified in 188.8.131.52.; by analyzing a representative sample, using equipment that is capable of achieving the criteria specified in 184.108.40.206.; or by measuring direct dose rate for submersion nuclides of known composition, with an appropriate geometry correction to the room location of the maximum dose rate. (Note: Monitoring may not be required.)
7.2. Radioactive Effluent Monitoring
7.2.1. Submersion Nuclide Effluents may be monitored by measuring the dose at the location of interest using integrating dosimeters or other appropriate instrumentation (assuming adequate consideration is given to background measurements and calibration). An alternate method is by measuring the concentration at some point in the release pathway and by calculating the dose at the location of interest using realistic dispersion and plume shine factors. (Note: Monitoring may not be required.)
7.2.2. Airborne Radioactive Materials (other than Submersion Nuclide Effluents) may be monitored by measuring the concentration at some point in the release pathway and, using realistic dispersion factors, deposition velocities, and plume shine factors, calculating the dose at the location of interest. An alternate method is by measuring the concentration, the deposition, and the external dose (or dose rate) at the location of interest. (Note: Monitoring may not be required.)
7.2.3. Liquid Effluents may be monitored by measuring the concentration at some point in the release pathway and calculating the concentration at the location of interest using realistic dilution factors. An alternate method is by measuring the concentration at the location of interest. (Note: Monitoring may not be required.)
7.3. Emergency Radiation Monitoring
Provisions shall be made to ensure that emergency radiation monitoring can be done in a manner to provide pertinent information rapidly and in a format that will allow timely decisions regarding protective measures to be taken to minimize radiation exposures.
8.1. Radiation measuring instruments for routine operations, abnormal conditions, and emergency situations shall be provided.
8.2. The range and spectral response of the instrumentation provided shall reliably cover the kinds of radiation and the levels expected during normal operations and shall extend from these levels through radiation levels postulated for emergency situations. It is not required that a single instrument provide full coverage of this projected range of radiation and concentration levels.
8.3. Instruments shall be tested at least annually in a performance quality assurance program, or more frequently if subject to extreme conditions. Instruments shall be repaired and re-calibrated as required. Instruments should have inherently stable calibration characteristics.
9. ALARA Objectives, Program, and Audits:
9.1. The objectives of the ALARA program are to maintain exposures to radiation and to releases of radioactive effluents at levels that are ALARA within the established dose equivalent and effluent release limits of the appropriate regulatory authority.
9.2. Dose Limits
9.2.1. Occupational exposure
220.127.116.11. The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) shall be limited to 5 rem/yr (50 mSv/yr), with a 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr) lifetime average for the maximally exposed worker under normal conditions.
18.104.22.168. The TEDE shall be limited to 500 mrem/yr for the duration of the pregnancy for a declared pregnant worker, with a 50 mrem limit per month. If the dose of the embryo/fetus at the time of declaration exceeds 450 mrem, then the declared pregnant woman shall be limited to 50 mrem for the duration of the pregnancy (see section 10.8).
9.2.2. Public exposure
22.214.171.124. The TEDE shall be limited to 100 mrem/yr (1 mSv/yr).
9.3. The three key safety factors for minimizing external radiation hazards are minimizing time, maximizing distance, and the utilization of shielding.
9.4. Designs of new facilities, revisions of existing facilities, and changes of existing operations shall take into consideration controlling exposures from radiation, contamination, and radioactive effluents.
9.5. The following factors should be considered to minimize exposure to radiation:
9.5.1. Mechanical difficulties potentially encountered during experiments or during operations that could result in increased levels of contamination, of radiation and/or of airborne radioactive material.
9.5.2. Radioactive decay.
9.5.3. Feasibility of reducing the existing radiation levels through decontamination methods or by relocating the job to a lower radiation area.
9.5.4. Personnel entry into and exit from work areas.
9.5.5. Response capability for coping with abnormal operational occurrences.
9.5.6. Portable or temporary shielding.
9.5.7. Portable or temporary ventilation systems, or temporary enclosures and covering, or both.
9.5.8. Personnel preoperational briefing of those assigned to perform tasks in high radiation areas.
9.5.9. "Dry runs" on mockup equipment to identify problems that may be encountered in the actual situation and to select and qualify special tools and procedures.
9.5.10. Special communication systems
9.5.11. Radiation monitoring instruments in adequate numbers to permit accurate measurements and rapid evaluations of the radiation and contamination levels encountered.
9.5.12. Dose planning action levels for added management review.
9.6. The following shall be routinely considered:
9.6.1. Supervision and surveillance to ensure that appropriate procedures are followed and that planned precautions are observed.
9.6.2. Prompt notification to the RHSC when dose limits are approached or when unanticipated problems develop during the course of the work.
9.6.3. Use of and proper functioning of protective equipment.
9.7. Review and Audit:
9.7.1. An ALARA review of design and operations activities shall be conducted:
126.96.36.199. Major activities should be reviewed in a timely fashion to verify that planning was sufficient.
188.8.131.52. Occupational exposures shall be reviewed at least quarterly by the RSO. RHSC review shall be initiated for any individual exposures greater than those established in this document.
184.108.40.206. The ALARA program shall be reviewed and audited by a representative of the RHSC annually. The results of this audit shall be reported to the RHSC annually.
220.127.116.11. The RHSC shall annually assess the effectiveness of the radiation protection program and performance of the RSO to institute possible changes and improvements to reduce overall exposures and releases. The assessment shall include:
- Reviews of users' inventory and survey records
- Evaluation of users' radiation safety procedures through observation and discussion
- Performance of independent work area surveys
9.8. "Declared Pregnant" Program
9.8.1. Employees desiring lower occupational dose limits during or prior to their pregnancy may choose to declare their pregnancy.
9.8.2. This is a voluntary program. To become enrolled, the employee must notify the RSO in writing of the pregnancy or of the expected pregnancy and request enrollment in the program; otherwise the employee is subject to the same exposure controls as other radiation workers.
9.8.3. Upon declaring her pregnancy, the employee agrees to a program of occupational exposure controls to minimize exposure to the embryo/fetus. The dose limits in section 18.104.22.168. apply.
10.1. Documentation pertinent to ensuring the reliability and the effectiveness of the radiation protection program should be retained until their disposition is authorized by the RHSC.
10.2. Records of the following activities shall be maintained:
10.2.1. All audits performed by the RHSC.
10.2.2. All audits and surveys performed by the RSO and staff.
10.2.3. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments and equipment used for surveys.
10.2.4. Licensed material inventory.
10.2.5. All reports required by the RHSC at the quarterly meetings.
11. Emergency Exposure Guidelines:
11.1. Guidance for response to radiological emergencies is provided in the Nuclear Reactor Facility Emergency Plan and the Laboratory Emergency Procedure.
11.2. Guidance on dose limits for workers performing emergency services is summarized in Table 11-1. These limits apply to doses incurred over the duration of the emergency. Any radiation exposure of workers that is associated with an incident, but is accrued during non-emergency operations, should be limited in accordance with relevant occupational limits for normal situations. It is not possible to prejudge the risk that one could be allowed to take to save the lives of others. Persons undertaking any emergency operation in which the dose will exceed a TEDE of 25 rem (0.25 Sv) should do so only on a voluntary basis and with full awareness of the risks involved, which include the numerical levels of dose at which acute effects of radiation will be incurred and the numerical estimates of the risk of delayed effects. In general, the use of volunteers and those for whom radiation exposure presents a lesser risk is preferred (i.e.: older workers and those with lower lifetime effective dose equivalent accumulations should be chosen whenever possible).
Emergency Response Dose Guidance
|5 rem (50 mSv)||All|
|10 rem (0.1 mSv)||Protecting Valuable Property||Lower Dose Not Practicable|
|25 rem (0.25 mSv)||Life Saving or Protection of Large Populations||Lower Dose Not Practicable|
|> 25 rem (0.25 mSv)||Life Saving or Protection of Large Populations||Only on a Voluntary Basis to Persons Fully Aware of the Risks Involved|
12. Communication With the RHSC:
12.1. Communication with RHSC may be made through the committee chairman. The committee chairman's and the RSO's telephone numbers shall be listed in the WPI phone directory.
12.2. Reports and requests for action on radiation problems should be sent to the RHSC Secretary.
12.3. Emergency requests for action should be directed to the Radiological Safety Officer.
13.1. The majority of this document was extracted directly from the "American National Standard for Radiation Protection at Research Reactor Facilities, ANSI/ANS-15.11-1993"
13.2. Title 10, Chapter 1, of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 0, Part 20, and Part 33.
13.3. "Radiation Worker Training Manual." Northeast Utilities, January 1992.
The following definitions are reproduced from "American National Standard for Radiation Protection at Research Reactor Facilities, ANSI/ANS-15-11-1993"
- Absorbed dose: The energy imparted by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material. The units of absorbed dose are the rad and the gray (Gy).
- Accessible area: The area that can reasonably be occupied by a significant portion of an individual's body. (See also radiation area, high radiation area, significant portion.
- Activity: The rate of disintegration (transformation) or decay of radioactive material. The units of activity are the curie (Ci) and the becquerel (Bq).
- Adult: An individual 18 or more years of age.
- Airborne radioactive material: Radioactive material dispersed in the air in the form of dusts, fumes, particulates, mists, vapors, or gases.
- Airborne radioactivity area: A room, enclosure, or area in which airborne radioactive materials, composed wholly or partly of licensed material, exist in concentrations-- (1) In excess of the derived air concentrations (DACs) specified in Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20.1001-20.2401, Appendix B , or (2) To such a degree that an individual present in the area without respiratory protective equipment could exceed, during the hours an individual is present in a week, an intake of 0.6 percent of the annual limit on intake (ALI) or 12 DAC-hours.
- ALARA (acronym for "as low as is reasonably achievable"): To make every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits in 10CFR20 as is practical consistent with the purpose for which the licensed activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed materials in the public interest.
- Annual limit on intake (ALI): The derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a year. ALI is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by the reference man that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rem (0.05 Sv) or a committed dose equivalent of 50 rem (0.5 Sv) to any individual organ or tissue. (ALI values for intake by ingestion and by inhalation of selected radionuclides are given in Table 1, Columns 1 and 2, of Appendix B to 10 CFR 20.1001-20.2401.
- Annually: As applicable in the RHSC Radiation Regulations and in the WPI Health Physics Procedures, annually is defined as once a year, not to exceed every fifteen months.
- Authorized Radioisotope User: Those individuals authorized by the Radiation, Health, and Safeguards Committee to supervise, within their own facility, the use of ionizing radioactive material in concentrations or quantities greater than those set forth in sections 10CFR 30.14, 30.18, 30.70, and 30.71 of the USNRC regulations.
- Background radiation: Radiation from cosmic sources; naturally occurring radioactive materials, including radon, (except as a decay product of source or special nuclear material) and global fallout as it exists in the environment from the testing of nuclear explosive devices. "Background radiation" does not include radiation from source, byproduct, or special nuclear materials regulated by the Commission.
- Bioassay (radiobioassay): The determination of kinds, quantities, or concentrations and, in some cases, the locations of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement (in vivo counting) or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed from the human body.
- Byproduct material: (1) Any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielding in, or made radioactive by, exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear material; and (2) The tailings or wastes produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from ore processed primarily for its source material content, including discrete surface wastes resulting from uranium solution extraction processes. Underground ore bodies depleted by these solution extraction operations do not constitute byproduct material within this definition.
- Calibration: The determination of response of an instrument or system over its range so that its output can be correlated, with acceptable accuracy, to true values of the measured parameter.
- Class (or lung class or inhalation class): A classification scheme for inhaled material according to its rate of clearance from the pulmonary region of the lung. Materials are classified as D, W, or Y, which apply to a range of clearance half-times; for class D (days) of less than 10 days; for Class W (weeks), from 10 to 100 days; and for Class Y (years), greater than 100 days.
- Collective dose: The sum of the individual doses received in a given period of time by a specified population from exposure to a specified source of radiation. The units of collective dose are the person-rem and person-sievert.
- Committed dose equivalent (HT,50): The dose equivalent to organs or tissues of reference (T) that will be received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the 50-year period following the intake. The units of committed dose equivalent are the rem and the sievert (Sv).
- Committed effective dose equivalent (HE,50): The sum of the products of the weighting factors applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated and the committed dose equivalent to these organs or tissues (HE,50 = wT HT,50). The units of committed effective dose equivalent are the rem and the sievert (Sv).
- Contamination (radioactive): A radioactive substance dispersed in materials or places where it is undesirable.
- Controlled area: An area, outside of a restricted area but inside the site boundary, access to which can be limited by the owner/operator or licensee for any reason (see also restricted area).
- Declared pregnant woman: A woman who has voluntarily informed her employer, in writing, of her pregnancy and the estimated date of conception. (Note: The estimated date of conception may be an unspecified future date.)
- Deep-dose equivalent (Hd): Applies to external whole-body exposure, the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 1 cm (1000 mg/cm2). The units of deep-dose equivalent are the rem and the sievert (Sv).
- Derived air concentration (DAC): The concentration of a given radionuclide in air which, if breathed by the reference man for a working year of 2000 hours under conditions of light work (inhalation rate 1.2 m3 of air per hour), results in an intake of one ALI, or, in the case of submersion nuclides, that concentration that results in an external exposure equal to the dose limit. DAC values are given in Table 1, Column 3, of Appendix B to 10 CFR 20.1001-20.2401. See note 1 at the end of this section.
- Derived air concentration-hour (DAC-hour): The product of the concentration of radioactive material in air (expressed as a fraction or multiple of the derived air concentration for each radionuclide) and the time of exposure to that radionuclide, in hours. An owner, operator or licensee may take 2000 DAC-hours to represent one ALI, equivalent to a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rem (0.05 Sv).
- Dose or radiation dose: A generic term that means absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, or total effective dose equivalent, as defined in other paragraphs of this section.
- Dose equivalent (HT): The product of the absorbed dose in tissue, quality factor, and all other necessary modifying factors at the location of interest within the body. The units of dose equivalent are the rem and the sievert (Sv).
- Dosimetry processor: An individual or organization that processes and evaluates individual monitoring equipment in order to determine the radiation dose delivered to the equipment (see also NVLAP). 28.
- Effective dose equivalent (HE): The sum of the products of the dose equivalent to the organ or tissue (HT) and the weighting factors (wT) applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated (HE = wT HT). The units of effective dose equivalent are the rem and the sievert (Sv).
- Effluents: Airborne and liquid radioactive releases from a facility.
- Embryo or fetus: The developing human organism from conception until the time of birth.
- Entrance or access point: Any location through which an individual could gain access to radiation areas or to radioactive materials. This includes entry or exit portals of sufficient size to permit human entry, regardless of their intended use.
- Exempt quantity: A quantity determined by the licensing or chartering authority to be exempt from selected regulatory requirements.
- Exposure: Being exposed to ionizing radiation or to radioactive material.
- External dose: That portion of the dose equivalent received from radiation sources outside the body.
- Extremities: Hand, elbow, arm below the elbow; foot, knee, and leg below the knee.
- Eye dose equivalent: Applies to the external exposure of the lens of the eye and is taken as the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.3 centimeter (300 mg/cm2). The units of eye dose equivalent are the rem and the sievert (Sv).
- Facility: Applies to laboratories where ionizing radiation is used or is produced and to research reactor facilities.
- High radiation area: An area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem (1 mSv) in 1 hour at 30 cm from the radiation source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.
- Individual: Any human being.
- Individual monitoring: (1) The assessment of dose equivalent by the use of devices designed to be worn by an individual; (2) The assessment of committed effective dose equivalent by bioassay or by determination of the time-weighted air concentrations to which an individual has been exposed, i.e., DAC-hour; or (3) The assessment of dose equivalent by the use of survey data.
- Individual monitoring devices (individual monitoring equipment). Devices designed to be worn by a single individual for the assessment of dose equivalent, such as film badges, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), pocket ionization chambers, and personal ("label") air sampling devices.
- Internal dose: That portion of the dose equivalent received from radioactive material taken into the body.
- License: A permit or other similar authorization issued by the competent responsible authority.
- Licensee: An owner or operator holding a permit or license issued by the competent responsible authority.
- Limits (dose limits): The permissible upper bounds of radiation doses.
- Location of interest: That location in an unrestricted area or controlled area where the highest dose or concentration is likely to occur.
- Management: Those persons whose responsibility and authority include the radiation protection program.
- Member of the public: An individual in a controlled area, an unrestricted area, or an individual with no direct involvement with a licensed source in a restricted area. However, an individual is not a member of the public during any period in which the individual receives an occupational dose. See note 1 at the end of this section.
- Minor: An individual less than 18 years of age.
- Monitoring (radiation monitoring, radiation protection monitoring): The measurement of radiation levels, concentrations, surface area concentrations or quantities of radioactive material and the use of the results of these measurements to evaluate potential exposures and doses.
- Monthly: As applicable in the RHSC Radiation Regulations and in the WPI Health Physics Procedures, monthly is defined as every four weeks, not to exceed six weeks.
- Nonpower reactor (NPR): see research reactor.
- NVLAP (National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program): A program administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
- Occupational dose: The dose received by an individual in a restricted area or in the course of employment in which the individual's assigned duties involve exposure to radiation and to radioactive material from licensed and unlicensed sources of radiation, whether in the possession of the owner/operator or licensee or other person. Occupational dose does not include dose received from background radiation, as a patient from medical practices, from voluntary participation in medical research programs or as a member of the public.
- Owner, operator: see licensee.
- Permit: see license.
- Public dose: The dose received by a member of the public from exposure to radiation and to radioactive material released by a owner/operator or licensee, or to another source of radiation either within a owner/operator or licensee's controlled areas, or in unrestricted areas, or in a restricted area by a member of the public with no direct involvement with a licensed source. It does not include occupational dose or doses received from background radiation, as a patient from medical practices, or from voluntary participation in medical research programs. See note 1 at the end of this section.
- Quarterly: As applicable in the RHSC Radiation Regulations and in the WPI Health Physics Procedures, quarterly is defined as every three months, not to exceed fifteen weeks.
- Radiation (ionizing radiation): Alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other particles capable of producing ions. Radiation, as used in the RHSC's Radiation Regulations, does not include nonionizing radiation, such as radio- or microwaves, or visible, infrared, or ultraviolet light.
- Radiation area: An area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 0.005 rem (50 Sv) in 1 hour at 30 cm from the radiation source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.
- Radiation worker: An individual requiring radiation badging per 10 CFR 20.
- Radiation facility: A facility in which machines producing ionizing radiation are used.
- Radioactive materials area: An area or room in which there is used or stored an amount of licensed material exceeding ten times the quantity of such material specified in Appendix C to 10 CFR 20.1001-20.2401.
- Research reactor: A device designed to support a self- sustaining neutron chain reaction for research, developmental, educational, training, or experimental purposes and that can have provision for the production of radioisotopes.
- Research reactor facility: Includes all areas within which the owner or operator directs authorized activities associated with a research reactor.
- Restricted area: An area, access to which is limited by the owner/operator or licensee for the purpose of protecting individuals against undue risks from exposure to radiation and to radioactive materials. Restricted areas do not include areas used as residential quarters, but separate rooms in a residential building may be set apart as a restricted area (see also controlled area).
- Semi-annually: As applicable in the RHSC Radiation Regulations and in the WPI Health Physics Procedures, semi- annually is defined as every six months, not to exceed thirty weeks.
- Shall, should and may: The word "shall" is used to denote a requirement; the word "should", to denote a recommendation; and the word "may" to denote permission, neither a requirement nor a recommendation.
- Shallow-dose equivalent (Hs): Applies to the external exposure of the skin or of an extremity; taken as the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.007 centimeter (7 mg/cm2) averaged over an area of 1 cm2. The units of shallow dose equivalent are the rem and the sievert (Sv).
- Significant portion of the body: A portion, whose area exceeds 900 cm2, of the body other than the extremities. (Note: This portion represents about 5% of the adult total body area and about 15% of the trunk surface area.)
- Site boundary: That line beyond which the land or property is not owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by the owner/operator or licensee.
- Soluble material: Having no significant visible turbidity or significant visible suspended solids so as not to change their characteristics as a solution, e.g., so as not to have the characteristic of a sludge.
- Source material: (1) Natural uranium or thorium or any combination of uranium and thorium in any physical or chemical form; or (2) Ores that contain, by weight, 0.05%, or more, of uranium, thorium, or any combination of uranium and thorium. Source material does not include special nuclear material.
- Special nuclear material: (1) Plutonium, 238U, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235; but does not include source material; or (2) Any material artificially enriched by any of the foregoing but does not include source material.
- Submersion nuclides: Those gaseous nuclides and other airborne nuclides whose DAC is based on the external dose rate resulting from submersion in an atmosphere of that nuclide.
- Survey: An evaluation of the radiological conditions and potential hazards incident to the production, use, transfer, release, disposal, or presence of radioactive material or other sources of radiation. When appropriate, such an evaluation includes a physical survey of the location of radioactive material and measurements or calculations of levels of radiation, or concentrations or quantities of radioactive material present.
- Test reactor: see research reactor.
- Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE): The sum of the deep-dose equivalent (for external exposures) and the committed effective equivalent (for internal exposures).
- True value: The actual value of a parameter.
- Unrestricted area: An area, access to which is neither limited nor controlled by the owner/operator or licensee.
- Very high radiation area: An area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving an absorbed dose in excess of 500 rad (5 Gy) in 1 hour at 1 meter from a radiation source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.
Note: These definitions have been amplified from the 10CFR20 definition to provide proper application and implementation in the WPI setting through the addition of appropriate phrases.
RADIATION, HEALTH AND SAFEGUARDS COMMITTEE
The RHSC shall hold at least four meetings each year, at least one each in January, July, October, and April. Additional meetings shall be called by the Chairman or by the Secretary at the request of any committee member. Whenever possible, meeting notices shall be mailed out to all committee members at least one week in advance of the meeting.
A quorum shall consist of four committee members. Sub-committees may be appointed at the discretion of the RHSC chairman.
The Radiation, Health, and Safeguards Committee shall review and approve all proposed modifications affecting reactor safety, and general and specific types of experiments and procedures, including determination of unreviewed safety questions pursuant to 10 CFR Section 50.59. This committee shall also conduct, at least quarterly, audits of operations, equipment performance, records and procedures.
A function of the RHSC shall be to review and to discuss the reports detailed in Appendix C. The committee shall vote to approve or to disapprove of the actions and results tabulated on Forms 1-19 (see Appendix C). The committee shall also vote to approve or to disapprove of the results of its quarterly audit of the reactor's operation and maintenance programs and shall recommend corrected action as required. The RHSC shall follow up on disapproved results and recommended actions.
Minutes shall be kept of all RHSC meetings and copies shall be distributed to all committee members. The minutes shall include information concerning all topics of discussion and the results of all votes taken (i.e. approval of materials users and uses, experiments, procedural changes and changes to the regulations)
REPORTS AND MEETINGS RELATIVE TO THE
NUCLEAR REACTOR FACILITY AND THE
BYPRODUCT MATERIALS LICENSE
A. Reviews and Inspections Listed by Report Form Number
1. Area monitors shall be periodically checked with Cs or Co sources and the pool level monitor shall be tripped. The method used, date, and results shall be reported in writing to the RHSC at each quarterly meeting (July, Oct., Jan., April).
2. Excess reactivity and regulating blade worth measurements shall be made semi-annually and the results shall be reported in writing to the RHSC at the October and April meetings.
3. Power Level Calibration data shall be obtained semi- annually and the results reported to the RHSC in writing at the October and April meetings.
4. Pool pH readings and calibration data for the pH meter and resistivity probe shall be obtained semi-annually and reported to the RHSC in writing at the October and April meetings.
5. Survey instrument calibration dates shall be reviewed by the RHSC at each meeting.
6. A representative of the RHSC shall tour and inspect the reactor facility at each quarterly meeting. The log book, film badge records, and facility maintenance records shall be reviewed at these times. A written report shall be completed.
7. Wipe tests on selected areas of the reactor facility and at selected locations throughout the campus shall be made and the data submitted to the RHSC in writing at the July and January meetings.
8. Wipe tests and inventory on all licensed sealed sources shall be made and the data submitted to the RHSC in writing at the July and January meetings.
9. A written report to the RHSC shall be made at the July and January meetings concerning Ar41 release data, pool water activity, air dust sample activity, effluent releases, and solid waste disposal or storage.
10. Rod drop and release time data and annual inspection results shall be submitted to the RHSC at the October meeting.
11. The Reactor Facility annual report to the USNRC shall be reviewed by the RHSC at the January meeting.
12. The RHSC shall conduct and review at least two evacuation drills per calendar year and report at the January and July meetings.
13. The RHSC shall annually review in July the fuel inventory report of the reactor facility.
14. The RHSC shall review a written report to be submitted by the RSO at each quarterly meeting concerning the activities of the Radiation Safety Office since the last quarterly meeting.
15. The RHSC shall review at the October and April meetings the semi-annual materials status reports submitted by the facility director to the USNRC.
16. The RHSC shall discuss emergency and security measures at least annually.
17. Reactor Facility Beta, Gamma, Neutron Survey shall be made semi-annually at a power level greater than 5kW.
18. Minimum shutdown margin measurements shall be made semi- annually and the results reported to the RHSC at the October and April meetings.
19. A radiation survey of the X-Ray diffraction machines and of the accelerator shall be made semi-annually and reported to the RHSC at the October and April meetings.
1. It shall be the responsibility of the Reactor Facility Director to maintain all inspection reports submitted to the RHSC as listed in Part A.
2. It shall be the responsibility of the Reactor Facility Director to continuously maintain an adequate file of the field data supporting the reports submitted to the RHSC.
3. It shall be the responsibility of the RHSC Secretary to provide each member of the committee a meeting notice listing the agenda topics and itemizing the reports to be submitted and reviewed at least one week prior to the quarterly meeting.
4. It shall be the responsibility of the RHSC Secretary to mail to each member of the committee a copy of the committee meeting minutes within two weeks of the meeting date.
5. It shall be the joint responsibility of the RHSC Secretary and the Reactor Facility Director to each maintain a file of the RHSC minutes.